Tag Archives: Kompai

Viskas kas su kompais

RAID levels – RAID Lygiai – RAID0 (stripe), RAID1 (mirror), RAID5 ir RAID2, RAID3, RAID4, RAID6, RAID10, RAID01, RAID50

Sveiki,
Kaip sekas?

Šiandiena aprašysiu RAID masyvus (angl. redundant array of independent disks – rezervivinis nepriklausomų diskų masyvas). Diskai yra valdomi mikro valdiklio, kuris apjungia jūsų diskus į vieną menamą diską/skirsnį, kurį ir mato jūsų OS. Dažniausi panaudos atvejai:

  • Kelių mažesnių diskų sujungimui į vieną talpų diską
  • Keliu nepatikimu diskų sujungimui į vieną patikimą skirsnį

Pirmojo pvz.: turime tris betkokio dydžio diskus: 10GB, 10GB, 20GB, 20GB diskai, juos pasinaudojant RAID masyvu galime sujungti į vieną skirsnį, kurio talpa siektų 60GB…
Antrojo pvz.: turime tuos pačius 10GB, 10GB, 20GB, 20GB diskus, juos galime sujungti į viena masyvą kuriame galime prarasti vieną diską, o duomenys lieka sveiki, tuomet talpa būtų 40GB. Jei norime galimybę prarasti du diskus talpa siektų 20 ar 30 GB ;).
Pirmoji abrivietūra (angl. redundant array of inexpensive disks, rezervinis masyvas nebrangių diskų). Taigi, jei turime daugybę nebrangių SATA diskų, ir plokštę su daugybe SATA jungčių… mes gaime pasidaryti gan gerą ir talpią bylų talpyklą.
Taigi, galimi RAID lygiai:

  • RAID0 (angl. stripe – linijinis 🙂 ) – patvarių diskų masyvas – min 2 diskai
  • RAID1 (angl. mirror – veidrodinis) – veidrodinis masyvas – min 2 diskai
  • RAID2 – masvyvas naudojantis – min 3 diskai
  • RAID3 – baitų lygio “stripe” su dedikuotu disku kontrolinei sumai – min 3 diskai
  • RAID4 – blokų lygio “stripe” su dedikuotu disku kontrolinei sumai – min 3 diskai
  • RAID5 – blokų lygio “stripe” su nededikuotu disku kontrolinei sumai – min 3 diskai
  • RAID6 – bokų lygio “stripe” su nededikuotais dikslais kontrolinei sumai – min 4 diskai

RAID0 – stripe

RAID0 – apjungia kelis diskus ir jų talpą į vieną skirsnį. Įrašomą informaciją skirsto į visus diskus esančius masyve blokais. Talpa didėja priklausomai nuo diskų vietos… Jei turime du diskus 10GB ir 20GB tai darbinės vietos galime turėti 30GB. Įrašoma į diskus proporcionaliai nuo jų vietos. Sugedus vienam diskui, prarandami visi duomenys… bet skaitymo ir rašymo greitis yra didesnis nei vieno disko.RAID 0

RAID1 – mirror

RAID1 – apjungęs kelis diskus jų talpą suvienodina. Įrašoma informaciją kopijuoja į visus diskus esančius masyve. Talpa yra lygi mažiausios talpos diskui esančiam šiame masyve. Jei turime du diskus 10GB ir 20GB tai darbinės vietos masyve galime turėti 10GB. Jei OS/mikrovaldiklis kontroliuojanti(-is) masyvo/diskų darbą palaiko “multi-thread” ir skirtingus kreipimus greitis nuskaitymo paspartėja. Naudojant diskus esančius skirtinguose valdikliuose kartais vadinama “duplexing”.
RAID1

RAID2

RAID2 – apjungiantis kelis diskus, kurie privalo suktis sinchroniškai. Informacija įrašoma po bitą į diskus ir viename yra saugomas hemingo kodas visų prieš tai ėjusių diskų bitų info. Pasiekiami dideli greičiai.
RAID2

RAID3

RAID3 – apjungiantis kelis diskus, kurie privalo suktis sinchroniškai. Informacija įrašoma po baitą į diskus ir viename yra saugomakontrolinė suma visų prieš tai ėjusių diskų baitų info. Pasiekiami dideli greičiai.
RAID3

RAID4

RAID4 – apjungiantis kelis diskus. Informacija įrašoma po bloką į diskus ir viename yra saugoma kontrolinė suma visų prieš tai ėjusių diskų blokų info. Galimi sutrikimai tik nesuprantu kur…
RAID4

RAID5

RAID5 – apjungiantis kelis diskus. Informacija įrašoma į diskus ir kaskart kitame diske yra saugoma kontrolinė suma visų likusių diskų. Pasiekiami dideli greičiai. Galime nepergyvendami prarasti vieną diską, bet žinoma, jį reikės pakeisti nauju ir prijungti jį į masyvą.
RAID5

RAID6

RAID6 – apjungiantis kelis diskus. Informacija įrašoma į diskus ir kaskart kitame diske yra saugoma kontrolinė suma visų likusių diskų. Šis RAID skiriasi nuo RAID5 tuom, kad jis turi nevieną diską kontrolinei sumai, o du diskus, kuriuose saugoma kontrolinė suma. Pasiekiami dideli greičiai. Galime nepergyvendami prarasti du diskus, bet žinoma, juos reikės pakeisti naujais ir prijungti juos į masyvą.
RAID6


Taip pat pavartę internetą rasite RAID10, RAID01, RAID50, RAID05 ir t.t. tai tiesiog keli RAID’ai sujungiami į vieną. Pvz.: RAID10 sudaro RAID1 kuriame yra RAID0 ;).
RAID10 RAID01 RAID50

Iš esmės, reikia nepamiršti vieno dalyko, RAID particija yra kaip diskas, taigi ją galima naudoti kaip diską ir kurti kokius tik norime RAID masyvus.
Pavyzdžiui, turime keturis diskus iš jų 2x40GB ir 2x80GB. Šiuos diskus galime sudėti keliom kombinacijom:

  • Visus sumesti į vieną RAID 0, tuomet gausime 240GB, bet labai nestabilius, išlėkus vienam diskui prarasime visus duomenis
  • 2x40GB sujungti į vieną panaudojus RAID0 ir vėliau, gautus 3x80GB sujungti į RAID5, gausime apie 160GB stabilių.
  • Susikuriame du RAID0 40GB+80GB ir tuos 2x120GB į vieną RAID1 (mirror) gausim greitus 120GB.
  • Ir panašias kombinacijas

Taip pat reikia nepamiršti apie egzistuojančius HARDWARE ir SOFTWARE RAID’us. HARDWARE masyvas priklauso nuo geležies ir sudegus geležai mes sunkiai nuskaitysime diskų turinį. SOFTWARE masyvas yra lankstesnis bet ir lėtesnis lyginant su HARDWARE, bet mes galime pernešti diskus ir pajungti juos prie kito kompiuterio ir programiškai juos sukonfigūruoti…

Tai tiek šiam kartui…

HP10xx Hewlett-Packard LaserJet 1020 Debian Lenny (stable)

Tam naudosime:

heh, daugybe paketu prisidiegiau, tai nezinia ar kazko nepraleidau… (Galbut libusb, cupsys?)
Taigi pradzioje prisijunkim:


deb http://debian.mirror.vu.lt/debian squeeze main
deb-src http://debian.mirror.vu.lt/debian squeeze main


i byla: /etc/apt/sources.list.d/squeeze.list
tuomet susidiekime p910nd:


apt-get update
apt-get install p910nd


ir nepamirskime squeeze pasalinti is resursu: komandele:


rm /etc/apt/source.list.d/squeeze.list


Toliau mums beliko sudiegti draiveriukus musu printeriui ir paleisti spausdinimo demona…
Taigi p910nd spausdinimo demono konfiguravimas byloje: /etc/default/p9910nd


# Printer number, if not 0
P910ND_NUM=""
# Additional daemon arguments, see man 8 p910nd
P910ND_OPTS="-b -f /dev/usb/lp0 0"
# pas mane jis prisijunge prie device: /dev/usb/lp0 ;)

# Debian specific (set to 1 to enable start by default)
P910ND_START=1


Ir paleiskime si demona:


/etc/init.d/p910nd restart


Toliau parsisiuskime failiuka: sihp1020.dl ir issiarchyvuokime:


wget http://lpic.lt/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/sihp1020.dl.tar.bz2
bunzip2 sihp1020.dl.tar.bz2
tar -xf sihp1020.dl.tar


tuomet numeskim si firmware’a musu printeriui:


cat sihp1020.dl > /dev/usb/lp0


Kaip minejau /dev/usb/lp0 i cia prisilinkino mano usb printeriukas 🙂
toliau 🙂 kas?
lyg ir reiktu tiesiog uzeiti i http://localhost:631 ?

Norint, kad ikisus USB laideli dar reiktu nukopinti skripta a i /usr/sbin/hplj1020 taigi byla a:


#!/bin/sh

if [ -f /tmp/busy-prn ]; then
exit 99
fi

touch /tmp/busy-prn

sleep 2

D=$(awk '/Manufacturer/ {print $2} ' /proc/bus/usb/devices | grep -v Linux | wc -l)

if [ $D == 1 ]; then
# No daemon running
# Start daemon if printer is attached
if [ -e /dev/usb/lp0 ]; then
/etc/init.d/p910nd start
sleep 1
cat /root/sihp1020.dl > /dev/usb/lp0
fi
else
if [ $D == 0 ]; then
# No Printer attached but daemon running
# Kill daemon
/etc/init.d/p910nd stop
fi
fi

# Kill the spare process //hid3

kill `pidof p9100d | awk '{print $2}'`

rm -f /tmp/busy-prn


Ir kopijavimas:


cp a /usr/sbin/hplj1020


Lyg ir tiek ;)

External link:
https://answers.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/hplip/+question/45032

backup script bash tar bzip2

touch /backup.sh
mkdir /backup
chmod a+x /backup.sh

#!/bin/bash
cd /backup
file="`date +%Y%m%d-%H%M%S`.tar"
#echo $file
tar -cf new.backup/$file folder_to_backup
cd /backup/new.backup
bzip2 -zq9 $file
#rm $failas
echo "backed up `date` \n" >> /backup/backup.made
#remove older then 3 days to /backup/old.backup
find -type f -mtime +3 -exec mv {} ../old.backup/ \;
cd ../old.backup
# completely remove backups, older then 7 days
find -type f -mtime +7 -exec rm -f {} ../old.backup/ \;

mounting ftp in bash

In english
Kaip prijungti ftp serveri kaip lokalų katalogą?
Paieškojus radau keletą sprendimų, juos visus išbandžiau, ir priėjau išvadų, kad lyg ir patogiausias būdas tai pasinaudojus curlftpfs. Įdiekite jį pasinaudodami aptitude ar betkokį kitą paketų valdymo įrankį. (Papildomai apie curlftpfs_*.deb)
Taigi, mes jau galime prisijungti direktoriją prie ftp serveriuko, kaip tai padaryti?

Prijungimui per fstab įgyvendinti mums reikia atlikti 2 veiksmus:

  • pridėti įrašą į /etc/fstab
  • sukurti mount.curlftpfs

Taigi pridedame įrašą į /etc/fstab


ftpusername:ftppassword@ftp.site.address /path/to/mountpoint curlftpfs rw,allow_other,uid=userid,gid=groupid 0 0


ir tuomet sukuriame mount.curlftpfs tam, kad mount suprastų ką ir kaip reikia prijungti naudojant curlftpfs failų sistemą.


# ln -s `which curlftpfs` /sbin/mount.curlftpfs


Ir antrasis būdas tiesiog kiekvieną kartą paleidžiant OS prijungti pasinaudojant curlftpfs ftp direktoriją, deja jeigu mes neturėsime krovimosi metu tinklo, mum nepavyks prisijungti šio resurso. Taigi paprasčiausiai įdedame eilutę:


curlftpfs ftpusername:ftppassword@ftp.site.address /path/to/mountpoint/


Žinoma, neturint tinklo abiem atvejais negalėsime prisijungti prie ftp resurso, bet pirmuoju būdu atsiradus tinklui, galėsime tiesiog įrašyti: mount /path/to/mountpoint
ir resursas bus automatiškai prijungtas.


How to mount some ftp resource to my Debian box?
After doing some searches i have found some ways, i have tried them and wrote down the way i liked using curlftpfs. aptitude or apt-get it from curlftpfs_*.deb repositories or compile it from sources, what ever you like. After you have installed these you may choose howto mount our ftp to /path/to/mountpoint.

connecting using fstabwe wil need to make 2 steps:

  • add a row to /etc/fstab
  • create mount.curlftpfs

So let’s add some line to /etc/fstab


ftpusername:ftppassword@ftp.site.address /path/to/mountpoint curlftpfs rw,allow_other,uid=userid,gid=groupid 0 0


last step is to let mount recognize the filesystem type


# ln -s `which curlftpfs` /sbin/mount.curlftpfs


And the second one is just to add a row to /etc/rc.local file.


curlftpfs ftpusername:ftppassword@ftp.site.address /path/to/mountpoint/


Of course both ways will not work if we will not have active connection at startup. But using fstab way you can easily mount it: mount /path/to/mountpoint

External links:
some more info on forums

Palink Kaledų Stebūklas, kaip galima?


Taigi, mano siūlymas yra naudoti vieną skaitliuką visiems tinklapiams, kaip jumi į tai? Kas norite prisijungti prie mūsų ar basiūlyti mums jūsų skaitliuką, rašykite, susitarsime, beje štai mano skriptas: <script type=”text/javascript” src=”http://www.kaledustebuklas.lt/code.php?uid=916″></script>

Kai tik įdėjau skaitliuką į tinklapį, aš pamačiau, kad mano tinklapyje esantis skaitliukas nieko nesurinks… Todėl aš bandžiau ieškoti žmonių, kurie galėtų su manim pasidalinti, nei vienas jų man neatsiuntė savo skaitliuko kodo, taigi teko kelti savo skaitliuką.

„Mes juk naudojame Linux… hm… 🙂 reikia sukurti skriptą“, pasakė mano draugas. Na taip ir gimė skriptas paremtas crontab’u. Taigi nusikopijuokite skriptuką ir nupastinkite jį į ~/kaledustebuklas


#!/bin/bash

wget -q http://www.kaledustebuklas.lt/code.php?uid=916 -O /tmp/b

wget –delete-after `cat /tmp/b|sed -e ‘s/ /\n/g’|grep uid|sed ‘s/..$//g’|cut -d\’ -f2`

rm -f /tmp/b


Taigi įdėjus šį skriptuką į crontab’ą:


* */1 * * * wget http://www.kaledustebuklas.lt/code.php?uid=916 –delete-after -r -l 1 -np ; rm -rf www.kaledustebuklas.lt

* */1 * * * ~/kaledustebuklas


Beje, visa tai daroma tuo pačiu naudotoju 😉

P.S. aš pamiršau, kad reikia suteikti ~/kaledustebuklas skriptui exec teises, tai galime padaryti šia komanda:


chmod a+x ~kaledustebuklas


Ašiū!

Naudojamos komandos / programos:

  • crontab
  • bash
  • wget
  • grep
  • sed
  • rm

vi redaktorius

STARTING vi

    vi filename    redaguoti byla vardu "filename"
    vi newfile     sukurti nauja byla vardu "newfile"

ENTERING TEXT

    i            įterpti tekstą iš kairės nuo žymeklio
    a            įterpti tekstą iš dešinės nuo žymeklio

MOVING THE CURSOR

    h            į kairę per simbolį
    j            į apačią
    k            į viršų
    l            į dešinę per simbolį

BASIC EDITING

    x         trinti simbolį už žymeklio
    nx        trinti n simbolių už žymeklio
    X         trinti simbolį prieš žymeklį
    dw        trinti žodį
    ndw       trinti n žodžių
    dd        iškirpti eilutę
    ndd       iškirpti n eilučių
    D         trinti simbolius nuo kursoriaus iki eilutės pabaigos
    r         pakeisti simbolį po žymekliu
    cw        pakeisti žodį
    ncw       pakeisti n žodžių
    C         keisti tekstą nuo žymeklio iki eilutės galo
    o         įterpti eilutę po žymekliu
                 (ready for insertion)
    O         įterpti eilutę virš žymeklio
                 (ready for insertion)
    J         join succeeding line to current cursor line
    nJ        join n succeeding lines to current cursor line
    u         undo last change
    U         restore current line

MOVING AROUND IN A FILE

    w            forward word by word
    b            backward word by word
    $            to end of line
    0 (zero)     to beginning of line
    H            to top line of screen
    M            to middle line of screen
    L            to last line of screen
    G            to last line of file
    1G           to first line of file
    <Control>f   scroll forward one screen
    <Control>b   scroll backward one screen
    <Control>d   scroll down one-half screen
    <Control>u   scroll up one-half screen
    n            repeat last search in same direction
    N            repeat last search in opposite direction

CLOSING AND SAVING A FILE

    ZZ            save file and then quit
    :w            save file
    :q!            discard changes and quit file

External Links

How to use the vi editor

fstab

fstab – kas tai? kam tai?

Ši byla aprašo skirsnius ir kuriose direktorijas mūsų bylų sistemoje bus prijungti šie skirsniai ir kokiais parametrais.

/etc/fstab naudojamas prijungti mūsų particijas ir FS, šios bylos turinys nuskaitomas įkrovos metu.

Skaitydami toliau, tikiuosi mokate naudotis mount komanda. Nes iiš esmės bus naudojamos tos pačios nuostatos ir principas.

  • Autorius: Nana Långstedt < nana.langstedt at gmail.com >
  • tuXfile sukurtas: 2003 m. Spalio mėn. 12 d.
  • Atnaujinta: 2009 m. Rugsėjo mėn. 5 d.

Kas yra fstab ir kodėl tai naudinga

fstab yra konfigūracinė byla, kurioje įrašyta informacija apie visus skirsnius ir kaupiklius prijungtus prie jūsų kompiuterio. Byla patalpinta /etcdirektorijoje, taigi pilnas kelias būtų /etc/fstab.

Byloje /etc/fstab yra informacija kaip ir kur turėtų būti prijungti mūsų kaupikliai ir particijos. Jeigu jūs negalite pasiekti savo Windows skirsnio ar negalite prisijungti CD/DVD-ROM/RW, ar įrašyti standžiojo diskelio paprasto/kasdienio naudotojo teisėmis, gan didelė tikimybė, kad ka-kas pažaidė su jūsų /etc/fstab. Dažniausiai tokios problemos gai būti ištaisytos pataisius šią vienintele bylą.

/etc/fstab – tai tiosiog pliko teksto byla, taigi jums nereikia jokios specialios programos norint atidaryti šią bylą – užteks paprasto redaktoriaus, kad ir vim, cream, gedit, nano, kedit, kwrite ar kitas. Vieninteis reikalavimas, turime turėti root’o teises norint jį redaguoti ar net skaityti. Taigi norėdami šią bylą redaguoti, galite prisijungti kaip root ar pasinaudoti su komanda ar sudo.

Bylos peržiūra

Žinoma visi turime skirtingas /etc/fstab bylas, nes skiriasi mūsų skirsniai ir jų išdėstymas, diskai ir t.t. Bet struktūra bylos, esmė, visur ta pati. Štai pavyzdukas tokios bylos:

#Įrenginys Direktorija FS Opcijos Dump fsck
/dev/hda2 / ext3 defaults 1 1
/dev/hda1 /boot ext3 defaults 1 1
/dev/hda3 swap swap pri=42 0 0
/dev/hdb1 /home ext3 defaults 1 2
/dev/cdrom /media/cdrom auto ro,noauto,user,exec 0 0
/dev/fd0 /media/floppy auto rw,noauto,user,sync 0 0
proc /proc proc defaults 0 0

Ką visas šis šlamštas reiškia? Kaip jau pamatėte kiekviena eilutė neša informaciją apie įrenginį arba skirsnį. Pirmame stulpelyje išdėstyti įrenginių bylos/vardai, antrame, kur šie bus prijungti, trečiame jų bylųsistemos tipai, ketvirtame prijungimo opcijos, penktame (skaičius) dump opcijos, šeštame (kitas skaičius) bylų sistemos tikrinimo nustatymai. Nagi pasižiūrėkime šiektiek iš arčiau.

1-as ir 2-as stulpeliai: Įrenginiai ir nutylėtosios prijungimo direktorijos (default mount point’s)

The first and second columns should be pretty straightforward. They tell the mount command exactly the same things that you tell mount when you mount stuff manually: what is the device or partition, and what is the mount point. The mount point specified for a device in /etc/fstab is its default mount point. That is the directory where the device will be mounted if you don’t specify any other mount point when mounting the device.

Like you already learned from the Mounting tuXfile, most Linux distros create special directories for mount points. Most distros create them under /mnt, but some (at least SuSE) under /media. As you probably noticed when looking at the example fstab, I use SuSE’s mount points as an example.

What does all this mean? If I type the following command: $ mount /dev/fd0 … my floppy will be mounted in /media/floppy, because that’s the default mount point specified in /etc/fstab. If there is no entry for /dev/fd0 in my fstab when I issue the command above, mount gets very confused because it doesn’t know where to mount the floppy.

You can freely change the default mount points listed in /etc/fstab if you’re not satisfied with the defaults your distro has given you. Just make sure the mount point is a directory that already exists on your system. If it doesn’t, simply create it.

Some partitions and devices are also automatically mounted when your Linux system boots up. For example, have a look at the example fstab above. There are lines that look like this:

/dev/hda2 / ext2 defaults 1 1 /dev/hdb1 /home ext2 defaults 1 2

As you’ve learned, these lines mean that /dev/hda2 will be mounted to / and /dev/hdb1 to /home. This is done automatically when your Linux system boots up… if it wouldn’t, you’d have a hard time using your cool Linux system because all the programs you use are in / and you wouldn’t be able to run them if / wasn’t mounted! But how does the system know where you want to mount /dev/hda2 and /dev/hdb1? By looking at the /etc/fstab file of course.

3rd column: Filesystem type

The third column in /etc/fstab specifies the filesystem type of the device or partition. Many different filesystems are supported but we’ll take a look at the most common ones only.

ext2 and ext3 Very likely your Linux partitions are Ext3. Ext2 used to be the standard filesystem for Linux, but these days, Ext3 and ReiserFS are usually the default filesystems for almost every new Linux distro. Ext3 is a newer filesystem type that differs from Ext2 in that it’s journaled, meaning that if you turn the computer off without properly shutting down, you shouldn’t lose any data and your system shouldn’t spend ages doing filesystem checks the next time you boot up.

reiserfs Your Linux partitions may very well be formatted as ReiserFS. Like Ext3, ReiserFS is a journaled filesystem, but it’s much more advanced than Ext3. Many Linux distros (including SuSE) have started using ReiserFS as their default filesystem for Linux partitions.

swap The filesystem name is self-explanatory. The filesystem type “swap” is used in your swap partitions.

vfat and ntfs Your USB stick is most likely formatted as Vfat (more widely known as FAT32). Your Windows partitions are probably either Vfat or NTFS. The 9x series (95, 98, ME) all use Vfat, and the NT series (NT, 2000, XP, Vista, 7) use NTFS but they may be formatted as Vfat, too.

auto No, this isn’t a filesystem type 🙂 The option “auto” simply means that the filesystem type is detected automatically. If you take a look at the example fstab above, you’ll see that the floppy and CD-ROM both have “auto” as their filesystem type. Why? Their filesystem type may vary. One floppy might be formatted for Windows and the other for Linux’s Ext2. That’s why it’s wise to let the system automatically detect the filesystem type of media such as floppies and cdroms.

4th column: Mount options

The fourth column in fstab lists all the mount options for the device or partition. This is also the most confusing column in the fstab file, but knowing what some of the most common options mean, saves you from a big headache. Yes, there are many options available, but I’ll take a look at the most widely used ones only. For more information, check out the man page of mount.

auto and noauto With the auto option, the device will be mounted automatically (at bootup, just like I told you a bit earlier, or when you issue the mount -a command). auto is the default option. If you don’t want the device to be mounted automatically, use the noauto option in /etc/fstab. With noauto, the device can be mounted only explicitly.

user and nouser These are very useful options. The user option allows normal users to mount the device, whereas nouser lets only the root to mount the device. nouser is the default, which is a major cause of headache for new Linux users. If you’re not able to mount your cdrom, floppy, Windows partition, or something else as a normal user, add the user option into /etc/fstab.

exec and noexec exec lets you execute binaries that are on that partition, whereas noexec doesn’t let you do that. noexec might be useful for a partition that contains binaries you don’t want to execute on your system, or that can’t even be executed on your system. This might be the case of a Windows partition.

exec is the default option, which is a good thing. Imagine what would happen if you accidentally used the noexec option with your Linux root partition…

ro Mount the filesystem read-only.

rw Mount the filesystem read-write. Again, using this option might cure the headache of many new Linux users who are tearing their hair off because they can’t write to their floppies, Windows partitions, or something else.

sync and async How the input and output to the filesystem should be done. sync means it’s done synchronously. If you look at the example fstab, you’ll notice that this is the option used with the floppy. In plain English, this means that when you, for example, copy a file to the floppy, the changes are physically written to the floppy at the same time you issue the copy command.

However, if you have the async option in /etc/fstab, input and output is done asynchronously. Now when you copy a file to the floppy, the changes may be physically written to it long time after issuing the command. This isn’t bad, and may sometimes be favorable, but can cause some nasty accidents: if you just remove the floppy without unmounting it first, the copied file may not physically exist on the floppy yet!

async is the default. However, it may be wise to use sync with the floppy, especially if you’re used to the way it’s done in Windows and have a tendency to remove floppies before unmounting them first.

defaults Uses the default options that are rw, suid, dev, exec, auto, nouser, and async.

5th and 6th columns: Dump and fsck options

Dump and, uh, what options? Well, dump is a backup utility and fsck is a filesystem check utility. I won’t discuss them in great length here (they would both need their own tuXfile), but I’ll mention them, because otherwise you’d spend the rest of the day wondering what on God’s green Earth do these things mean.

The 5th column in /etc/fstab is the dump option. Dump checks it and uses the number to decide if a filesystem should be backed up. If it’s zero, dump will ignore that filesystem. If you take a look at the example fstab, you’ll notice that the 5th column is zero in most cases.

The 6th column is a fsck option. fsck looks at the number in the 6th column to determine in which order the filesystems should be checked. If it’s zero, fsck won’t check the filesystem.

Example /etc/fstab entries

As an example, we’ll take a look at a couple of fstab entries that have been a source of endless frustration for new Linux users: floppy and CD-ROM (although these days floppies aren’t that important anymore).

/dev/fd0 /media/floppy auto rw,noauto,user,sync 0 0

This line means that the floppy is mounted to /media/floppy by default and that its filesystem type is detected automatically. This is useful because the type of the floppy may wary. Note especially the rw and user options: they must be there if you want to be able to mount and write to the floppy as a normal user. If you have trouble with this, check your fstab file to see if these options are there. Also note the sync option. It can be async just as well, but it’s sync because of reasons discussed a bit earlier.

/dev/cdrom /media/cdrom auto ro,noauto,user,exec 0 0

Note, again, the user option that enables you to mount the CD as a normal user. The CD-ROM has the ro option because it’s no use mounting a CD-ROM read-write because you wouldn’t be able to write to it anyway. Also note the exec option. It’s especially useful if you’d like to be able to execute something from your CD.

Also note that the noauto option is used with the floppy and CD-ROM. This means that they won’t be automatically mounted when your Linux system boots up. This is useful for removable media, because sometimes there won’t be any floppy or CD-ROM when you boot up your system, so there isn’t any reason to try to mount something that doesn’t even exist.

Windows Linux alternatyvos

Networking

Description Windows Mandriva Linux
Web Browser Internet Explorer, Firefox, Mozilla Seamonkey, Opera, Lynx, etc. Firefox, Mozilla Seamonkey, Konqueror, Opera, Nautilus, Galeon, Epiphany, Lynx
E-mail Outlook, Outlook Express, Netscape, Mozilla Thunderbird, The Bat, Eudora, Becky, Datula, Sylpheed Claws Mail, Opera Evolution, Netscape, Mozilla Thunderbird, Sylpheed Claws Mail, Kmail, Gnus, Balsa, Bynari Insight GroupWare Suite, Arrow, Gnumail, Althea, Liamail, Aethera, MailWarrior, Opera
E-mail, Console Mutt, Pine, Pegasus, Emacs Pine, Mutt, Gnus, Elm, Emacs
News reader 1) Agent, Free Agent, Xnews, Outlook, Netscape Mozilla, Opera, Sylpheed Claws Mail, Dialog, Gravity, BNR2 Knode, Pan, NewsReader, Netscape Mozilla Thunderbird, Opera, Sylpheed Claws Mail
Console:Pine, Mutt, Gnus, tin, slrn, Xemacs, BNR2
Contact Manager Outlook Rubrica, KAddressBook, Evolution
Download Manager Flashget, Go!zilla, Reget, Getright, DAP, Wget, WackGet, Mass Downloader, Teleport Pro, Httrack, Wget, etc. Downloader for X, Caitoo, Prozilla, Wget, Kmago, Gnome Transfer Manager, QTget, Xget, Aria2, Axel, Download Accelerator Plus, GetLeft, Lftp.
FTP Clients Bullet Proof FTP, CuteFTP, WSFTP, SmartFTP, FileZilla Gftp, FileZilla, Konqueror, KBear, IglooFTP, Nftp, Wxftp, AxyFTP, Midnight Commander (cd ftp://…), tkFTP, Yafc
IRC Clients Mirc, Klient, VIRC, Xircon, Pirch, XChat Konversation, Quassel, Xchat, KVirc, Irssi, BitchX, Ksirc, Epic, Sirc, PJIRC
Instant Messaging ICQ Lite, ICQ Corp, MSN, AIM, Yahoo, …Trillian ICQ (freeware, can replace all common IM clients), Miranda, Pidgin Pidgin (Nearly all IM protocols), Kopete, aMSN (MSN), Kmess (MSN), Licq (ICQ), Centericq (Nearly all IM protocols, console), Alicq (ICQ), Micq (ICQ), GnomeICU (ICQ), Ayttm (Nearly all IM protocols), Everybuddy, Simple Instant Messenger, Imici Messenger, Ickle (ICQ), Kmerlin (MSN), Kicq (ICQ), YSM (ICQ, console), kxicq, Yahoo Messenger for Unix, AIM, MSNre. (console)
A / V Conferencing NetMeeting GnomeMeeting (Ekiga Now), vat/vic/wb, rat/wbd/nte, NeVoT, IVS, Skype
Firewall BlackICE, ATGuard, ZoneAlarm, Agnitum Outpost Firewall, WinRoute Pro, Norton Internet Security, Sygate Personal Firewall PRO, Kerio Personal Firewall Kmyfirewall, Easy Firewall Generator, Firewall Builder, Shorewall, Guarddog, FireStarter, Smoothwall, IPCop, ZorpNote: these are all frontends for IPtables.
Intrusion Detection BlackICE, Agnitum Outpost Firewall, Tripwire, Kerio Personal Firewall Snort, Portsentry/Hostsentry/Logsentry, Tripwire, Tripwall, AIDE, ViperDB, Integrit, Cerberus Intrusion Detection System, MIDAS NMS.
P2P File Sharing Morpheus (Gnutella), WinMX, Napster, KaZaA (Fasttrack), eDonkey [Prop], eMule, TheCircle, Bittorrent, SoulSeek, Direct Connect Mldonkey. (eDonkey, Soulseek, Fasttrack, Gnutella, Open Napster, Direct Connect, BitTorrent), LimeWire. (Gnutella), Lopster. (OpenNAP), Gnapster. (OpenNAP), eDonkey. (eDonkey), cDonkey. (eDonkey), Gift client/server/fasttrack plugin (Fasttrack), ed2k_gui, Gtk-Gnutella. (Gnutella),) Qtella. (Gnutella), Mutella. (Gnutella, console), TheCircle, Freenet. (fully anonymous p2p), GNUnet, Lmule. (eDonkey), Xmule. (eDonkey), Bittorrent, PySoulSeek (Soulseek), Loophole (WinMX), Direct Connect, QuickDC. (Direct Connect), OverNet, Apollon, GrapeWine.(fully anonymous p2p), Snark. (Bittorrent), Sancho (mldonkey frontend), ktorrent, Vuze
FAX WinFax HylaFax, Fax2Send, Efax, VSI-FAX
Dialup Vdialer, etc Kppp, X-isp, wvdial. (Front ends: X-wvdial, kvdial, gtkdial), Gppp, Kinternet, Rp3, pppconfig + pon + poff, Modem Lights, Netcount. (console)
Remote Access VNC, Virtual Network Computing, Remote Administrator (Radmin), Remote Assistance, Symantec pcAnywhere, Windows Terminal Server, Rdesktop, Radmin, PC-Duo, Huey PC Remote Control (only for NT), Timbuktu Pro, LapLink, GoToMyPC, Bo2k and other trojans VNC, Virtual Network Computing, ssh, Remote management is built-in in XFree86, Remote management is built-in in KDE 3.1. (“desktop sharing”), Rdesktop Client, rsh / rlogin, telnet, Gtelnet, x0rfbserver, KDE Universal Remote Desktop.
Modem Terminal HyperTerminal, Terminate, etc Minicom + lrzcz + Kermit, Msterm, Xtel, uucp, lrzsz + cu from uucp.
Packet Sniffing Sniffer Pro, EtherPeek (TokenPeek, AiroPeek), Windump, Wireshark, MS Network Monitor, Iris, Lan Explorer, NetSniffer, Snort Wireshark, Tcpdump, Etherape, Ntop, ipxdump. (+ipxparse for parsing), Snort.
Port Scanning ShadowScan, ISS, Retina, Internet Scanner Nessus, Nmap
IP Telephony (VOIP) Buddyphone [Prop], Cisco SoftPhone, Skype GNU Bayonne, Openh323, OpenPhone, tkPhone, NauPhone, Twinkle, Ekiga (formely known as GnomeMeeting), Gizmo (win+mac version also), Kphone, Linphone, Skype
Network File Sharing Windows shares NFS, Samba, Samba-TNG, FTP.
Local Network Browsing Network neighborhood Samba, KDE Lan Browser, lisa, LinNeighborhood, xSMBrowser, Komba2, Konqueror, SMB4K
Distributed Computing All projects, United Devices, Seti @ Home, Folding @ Home, Genome @ Home. All projects, Distributed.net, Seti @ Home, Folding @ Home, Genome, @ Home, D2ol.

  • Some versions for Linux run only in console mode.

File Tools

Description Windows Linux
File Browsers FAR, Norton Commander, Disco Commander, Volcov Commander, Total Commander (former Windows Commander), Windows Explorer / Internet Explorer Konqueror, Nautilus, Krusader, PCMan File Manager, Thunar, Midnight Commander, X Northern Captain, Deco (Demos Commander), Portos Commander, Konqueror in MC style, Gentoo, VFU, Ytree, Kcommander, FileRunner (TCL/TK), Linux Commander, LinCommander, Rox, Rox-Filer, Emelfm, Midnight Commander, Worker, Gnome-Commander, Endeavour Mark II, XWC.
Personal Media Player Management iTunes, Windows Media Player Amarok, Rhythmbox, Gnomad2, GTKpod
Archive Compression WinZip, WinRar, 7-Zip, WinACE, UltimateZip Ark, File-Roller, Gnozip, KArchiveur, Gnochive, Unace, LinZip, TkZip.
Archiving, Console arj, rar, zip, tar, gzip, bzip2, lha tar, gzip, bzip2, Unarc, Lha, Infozip, Arj, Avfs. (The support of any archive from any program – file.zip#/…), Zoo, RAR, CAB Extract, 7-zip
Directory Comparison Beyond Compare, Araxis Merge, WinMerge, Minimalist GNU For Windows (diff.exe), Unison, kdiff3 Mgdiff, diff, patch, Xemacs, Xdelta. (make patches for binary files), Meld, Xxdiff, Unison, kdiff3, kompare

Desktop & System

Description Windows Linux
Text Editors Notepad, Notepad++, WordPad, TextPad, Vim, Xemacs, Gedit (Gnome), Kate (KDE), KWrite (KDE), Kedit (KDE), Gnotepad, Nedit, Vim, Xemacs, Xcoral, Nvi, Ozeditor, Emacs, Nano (It’s a free implementation of pico), joe, Fte, Jed, CoolEdit.
Multi-purpose text and source code editor SciTE, UltraEdit, MultiEdit, Vim, Xemacs Kate (KDE), Nedit, CodeCommander, SciTE, Quanta Plus, Vim, Xemacs, Mcedit (comes with mc), Jed, Setedit. (Turbo Vision looking style), HT editor.
Viewing PostScript RoPS, GhostView Okular, GhostView, Kghostview, GV, GGV
Viewing PDF Adobe Acrobat Distiller, GhostView Okular, Evince, Adobe Reader, Xpdf, GV, GGV, GhostView, Kghostview, Kpdf
PDF Creation Adobe Acrobat Distiller, GhostView, Ghostscript, Openoffice.org Any Linux WYSIWYG program -> print to file -> ps2pdf, Openoffice.org, Adobe Acrobat Distiller, PStill, PDFLatex, Xfig, Ghostscript, Tex2Pdf, Reportlab, GV, GGV, GhostView, Kghostview, Panda PDF Generator.
Cryptography EFS (standard), PGP-Disk, BestCrypt, Private Disk Light, PGP, GnuPG + Windows Privacy Tools GnuPG (console) + GPA, KGpg, and other frontends, PGP, Loop-aes, CFS, TCFS, BestCrypt, CryptFS, Truecrypt
Task Scheduling (Automation) mstask, nnCron cron, Anacron, at (standard, console). GUI: Kcron.
Appointment Scheduling Outlook scheduler KOrganizer.
Scanning Programs on CD with scanner, VueScan Xsane, Kooka, Xvscan, VueScan
Anti-Virus AVG AntiVirus, NAV, Dr. Web, TrendMicro, F-Prot, Kaspersky Clam Antivirus, F-Prot, Dr. Web, Trend ServerProtect, RAV Antivirus (Bought by Microsoft?), OpenAntivirus + AMaViS / VirusHammer, F-Prot, Sophie / Trophie, Kaspersky, YAVR.
System Configuration Control Panel, Msconfig, RegEdit, WinBoost, TweakXP, Customizer XP, X-Setup, PowerToys, Config NT setup (Red Hat), chkconfig (Red Hat), redhat-config-<feature> (Red Hat 8.0), xf86config, xf86cfg, Linuxconf, Drakconf (aka the Mandriva Control Center), Webmin, yast and yast2 (SuSE), sysinstall (FreeBSD), /dev/bare_hands 🙂
Boot managers System Commander, PowerQuest Boot Magic, GAG Grub, Lilo, ASPLoader, Acronis OS Selector, Ranish Partition Manager, osbs, Symon, Smart Boot Manager, Xosl, GAG.
Hard Drive Partition Management PowerQuest Partition Magic, Acronis PartitionExpert, Paragon Partition Manager, Partition Commander PartGUI. (GUI for partimage and parted), GNU Parted. (GUI – QTParted and GParted), Partition Image, fips, Diskdrake (Mandrake), Paragon Partition Manager, Acronis PartitionExpert
Backup ntbackup (standard), Legato Networker Clonezilla, Legato Networker, Lonetar, Disk Archive, Bacula, Taper, dump / restore. (console, standard), Amanda (console), Mondo Rescue. (backups that boot and auto restore themselves to disk)
Disk Imaging DriveImage, Ghostpe PartitionImage (GUI – PartGUI), Clonezilla, dd (console, standard), Mondo Rescue
Text to speech MS text to speech KDE Voice Plugins, Festival, Emacspeak, VoiceText, KTTS
System Monitoring System monitor (built-in) top and htop (console, standard), Ksysguard (KDE), Gnome System Monitor, Gkrellm, Survivor, Konqi, Several Plasma Widgets in KDE4 (RAM, CPU, HD space, Network)
Data Recovery Tools R-Studio (supports Linux partitions) e2undel, myrescue, TestDisk, unrm, Channel 16
Alarm clock MindIt! KAlarm.
PDA Tools Palm Desktop Kpilot, Jpilot.

Multimedia Audio/CD

Description Windows Linux
Music / mp3 / ogg players Winamp, Zinf, SnackAmp, Soritong, Apollo, K-jofol 2000, Sonique, C-4, Media Box Audio / Video Workstation 5, Blaze Media Pro, NEX 3, Real Jukebox, Windows Media Player Amarok, Rhythmbox, Songbird, MPlayer. (Frontends: SMPlayer, KMPlayer, Kplayer), VLC, Xine. (Frontends: Sinek, Gxine), XMMS (X multimedia system), Noatun, Zinf. (former Freeamp), Winamp, Xamp, GQmpeg, SnackAmp, Banshee
CD Burning Nero, Roxio Easy CD Creator K3b, Brasero, XCDRoast, KOnCd, Eclipt Roaster, Gnome Toaster, CD Bake Oven, KreateCD, SimpleCDR-X, GCombust, WebCDWriter. (CD burn server, usable from any remote browser with Java support),CDR Toaster, Arson, CD-Me (Creation of audio-CD), Nero
Audio CD Players CD player, Winamp, Windows Media Player KsCD, Sound Juicer, Gtcd (Gnome) + tcd (console), Orpheus. (console), Sadp, WorkMan, Xmcd, XPlayCD, ccd / cccd. (console) cdp. (console), BeboCD
Audio CD Ripping Cdex, MusicMatch, Streambox Ripper, Audiocatalyst, WinDac, Audiograbber, Media Box Audio / Video Workstation, CD-Copy, Blaze Media Pro, Real Jukebox, Windows Media Player, Nero, VirtualDrive, VirtualCD, Audacity Grip, KAudioCreator, Sound Juicer, RipperX, tkcOggRipper, A Better CD Encoder, cdda2wav (CLI), Gnome Toaster, Cdparanoia, Cd2mp3, Dagrab, SimpleCDR-X, RatRip, AutoRip.
MIDI Player Winamp, Windows Media Player xmms + midi-plugin. (Using TiMidity), xmms + awemidi-plugin. (Using drvmidi), xmms + playmidi-plugin. (Using playmidi), TiMidity++. Supports gus pathes and sf2 banks, backend to another software, timidity-eawpatches, Gus-patches for TiMidity++, Kmid, drvmidi / awemidi, pmidi (console, for ALSA), playmidi, atmidi.
Midi + Karaoke Player VanBasco Kmid. Gkaraoke. TiMidity++.
Mp3 Encoders Lame, Cdex, MusicMatch, Streambox Ripper, Audiocatalyst, Blaze Media Pro, Media Box Audio / Video Workstation, AudioSlimmer, Real Jukebox Lame, Bladeenc, NotLame, L3enc, gogo.
OGG Encoders oggenc oggenc
Real Media RealPlayer, Mplayer + libraries. RealPlayer, Mplayer + libraries, ReMedial.
Radio VC Radio, FMRadio, Digband Radio Streamtuner, xradio, cRadio, Xmradio, RDJ, RadioActive, XMMS-FMRadio, Gqradio, Qtradio
Audio Editing SoundForge, Cooledit, Audacity Audacity, Glame, Rezound, Sweep, WaveForge, Sox, GNUSound, Ecasound, SoundStudio, mhWaveEdit.
Multitrack Audio Processor Cubase Ecasound, Ardour
Sound Mixer sndvol32 Opmixer, aumix, mix2000, KMix, Alsamixer, GMix, wmix (for WindowMaker), Mixer_app (for WindowMaker), Many applets for AfterStep / WindowMaker / FluxBox
Music Notation Finale, Sibelius, SmartScore LilyPond, Noteedit,MuX2d
Midi-sequencer Cakewalk RoseGarden, Brahms, Anthem, Melys, MuSE, MidiMountain.
Music Creation Cakewalk, FruityLoops RoseGarden, Ardour.
ID3-Tag Editors Mp3tag EasyTAG, Cantus, id3tool (console), id3ed (console), id3edit (console).
Streaiming Audio Capture Twins Stream Ripper Stream Ripper

Multi-Media Graphics

Description Windows Linux
Graphics Viewers ACDSee, IrfanView, Xnview, CompuPic [Prop], Windows Fax and Image viewer, Any web browser Xnview, GQview, Qiv, CompuPic, Kuickshow, Kview, GTKSee, xv, pornview, imgv, Gwenview, Gliv, Showimg, Fbi, Gthumb, PixiePlus, Electric Eyes (Gnome), Eye of Gnome, GImageView, Hugues Image Viewer, Any web browser
Simple Bitmap Editors Paing Kpaint, Tuxpaint, Xpaint, Gpaint, Killustrator, Graphtool
Advanced Graphic/Photo Editors Adobe Photoshop, Gimp, Paint Shop Pro, Pixel32, Corel PhotoPaint, Macromedia Fireworks Gimp, ImageMagick, Pixel32, CinePaint, RubyMagick, Corel PhotoPaint 9
Vector Graphic Editors Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw, Freehand, AutoSketch, OpenOffice Draw Inkscape, sK1, Sodipodi, xfig, Sketch, Karbon14 and Kontour, OpenOffice Draw, Dia, Tgif, Gestalter, ImPress, Tkpaint, Tgif, Corel Draw 9
Scalable Vector Graphic Editors WebDraw Inkscape, sK1, Sodipodi, Dia, Sketch
Text Decoration Wordart, OpenOffice Draw OpenOffice Draw
ASCII Drawing ANSI DRAW, Mazaika CanvASCII, Jave, ANSI Draw, EDASCII
Flash Players Flash Player SWF Macromedia Flash Player, Flash Player, Plugin for Netscape/Mozilla
Flash Creation Macromedia Flash DrawSWF. Ming. (Creating flash swf output from programming languages)
3D-Graphics 3D Studio MAX, Maya, Povray Blender, Maya, KPovModeler, K3Studio, Moonlight, GIG3DGO, Povray, MegaPov, K3D, Wings 3D, Softimage XSI, Kludge3d
Icon editor Microangelo Gnome-iconedit, Kiconedit
Screenshots Integrated with system (PrintScreen), Snag it Ksnapshot, Xwpick, Xwd, xgrabsc, Motv (xawtv), Streamer (video), Integrated with window manager (various hotkeys)
Database Structure Access Dia, Toolkit for Conceptual Modelling
Digital Camera/Photo Organizers Polaroid Drivers Camera Tool (gtkam), Gphoto2, Kphoto, F-Spot, digiKam

Multimedia Video

Description Windows Linux
Video/MPEG4 Players BSplayer, Zoomplayer, Windows Media Player, VideoLAN, Winamp3, Mplayer, RealPlayer, Xing, Simplayer Mplayer. (Frontend: Kplayer),(LiveCD distribution of Mplayer – MoviX), Xine. (Frontends: Sinek, Totem), VideoLAN, Aviplay, Winamp3, Noatun, KDE Media Player, XMovie, Kaboodle, MpegTV, Avifile, Xmps, Ogg Tarkin (???), Theora (???)
DVD Players PowerDVD, WinDVD, MicroDVD, Windows Media Player, VideoLAN Ogle, Mplayer, Xine, Aviplay, VideoLAN, OMS,
DVD Ripping/Encoding Gordian Knot, Mencoder (from Mplayer) Drip, Transcode, Mencoder. (from Mplayer), Ffmpeg, DVD::Rip.
Simple Video Creation/Editing Windows Movie Maker iMira Editing, MainActor, Broadcast 2000, Avidemux.
Professional Video Production Adobe Premiere, Media Studio Pro iMira Editing, Cinelerra, MainActor, Broadcast 2000, Lives, CinePaint, Heroine Virtual.
Cutting Video Virtual Dub Avidemux, Kino.
Video Conversion Virtual Dub, Mencoder (from Mplayer) Transcode, Mencoder (from Mplayer), Ffmpeg.
TV Tuners AVerTV, PowerVCR 3.0, CinePlayer DVR, Mplayer, GBPVR Tvtime, Kwintv, Xawtv, Zapping, GnomeTV, Mplayer, Xawdecode, MythTV
Creation of 2D and 3D effects Adobe After Effects Shake. [Proprietary, $129.95], Plugins for Gimp.
Animation Animation Shop CinePaint, Plugins for Gimp, Blender
Landscape / terrain generation Bryce Terraform.

Office/Business

Description Windows Linux
Office Suite MS Office, StarOffice / OpenOffice, 602Software, WordPerfect Office 2000 OpenOffice, StarOffice, Koffice, HancomOffice, Gnome Office, Applixware Office, Siag Office, TeX, LaTeX,
Word Processors Word, StarOffice / OpenOffice Writer, 602Text, Abiword Abiword, TextMaker, WordPerfect, Ted, StarOffice / OpenOffice Writer, Kword, LyX, Kile (KDE Integrated LaTeX Environment).
Spreedsheets Excel, StarOffice / OpenOffice Calc, 602Tab Gnumeric, Abacus, StarOffice / OpenOffice Calc, Kspread.
Graphing/Charting Data Excel, MicroCall Origin Kivio, Dia, KChart, xfig, Gnuplot, GtkGraph, GNU Plotutils. Ploticus.
Presentations MS PowerPoint, StarOffice Presentation, OpenOffice Impress StarOffice Presentation, OpenOffice Impress, Kpresenter, MagicPoint, Kuickshow & gimp 🙂
Databases MS Access, InterBase6, OpenOffice + MySQL. Kexi, KNoda, Gnome DB Manager, OpenOffice + MySQL, InterBase7, InterBase6, Berkley DB, Rekall, StarOffice Adabase.
Financial Market Analysis Omega Research Trade Station 2000 The Market Analysis System (MAS)
E-commerce and Web Business Weblogic, IBM WebSphere Application Server, iPlanet, osCommerce, JOnAS, COCOON Weblogic, JBoss, IBM WebSphere Application Server, osCommerce, JOnAS, COCOON
Personal Finance MS Money, Quicken, Moneydance Skrooge, GNUcash, GnoFin, KMyMoney, Grisbi, Moneydance
Project Management MS Project, Project Expert 7 KPlato, Mr Project, Outreach, Planner

Games

Description Windows Linux
General Resources Enourmous Selection The Linux Game Tome (happypenguin.org) | LinuxGames.com | Kde Games | Linux Game Publishing, http://www.icculus.org/lgfaq/gamelist.php

Programming and Development

Description Windows Linux
IDE Microsoft VisualStudio .net, Emacs, XEmacs, Vim + ctags + scripts from vim.sf.net, Boa Constructor, PythonCard CodeForge, Kdevelop + Qt3 Designer, Eclipse, Glade + Motor or + Xwpe or + any text editor, Emacs, XEmacs, Vim + ctags + scripts from vim.sf.net, Boa Constructor, PythonCard.
Visual C++ IDE Borland C++ Builder, MS Visual C Anjuta + Glade + Devhelp, KDE Studio Gold, Dev-C++, Kylix (Kylix Personal Edition is free), vtkBuilder, foxBuilder, wxDesigner, Arriba, Code Crusader, CodeWarrior, Gbuilder, Source Navigator, TimeStorm, Understand for C++, SlickEdit, Vide
C++ IDE Borland Turbo C++ 3.0 for DOS, , Minimalist GNU For Windows (mingw32-gcc.exe) GCC (+ Motor or + Xwpe), LinEdit, Rhide, Wxstudio, Eclipse
Object Pascal IDE Delphi Kylix. (Kylix Personal Edition is free), Lazarus + FPC.
Pascal Pascal, BP Freepascal, GNU Pascal (gpc), RShell (in style of Borland Pascal 7.0)
Basic Basic Hbasic, X-basic, Yabasic, SmallBASIC.
Prolog VisualProlog, Mercury, SICStus Prolog GNU Prolog, Mercury, SWI-Prolog, SICStus Prolog, CIAO Prolog.
Assembler TASM, MASM, NASM NASM. (Intel syntax), FLAT Assembler, gas. (AT&T syntax, part of binutils).
Disassembler, Design Recovery SoftIce ldasm
Debugger WinDbg, Minimalist GNU For Windows (gdb.exe), ddd, xxgdb, mxgdb, CGDB, Vim scripts, [X]Emacs C-mode, KMD, NANA
WYSIWYG HTML Macromedia Dreamweaver, MS Frontpage, Netscape / Mozilla Composer, Openoffice HTML editor Netscape / Mozilla Composer, Openoffice HTML editor, Amaya, GINF (Ginf is not Frontpage), IBM WebSphere Homepage Builder, JXHTMLEDIT (Java).
HTML / DHTML editor HomeSite, Coffeecup, Arachnofilia Quanta Plus, Bluefish, WebMaker, Screem, Toppage, WebDesigner, ScriptEditor, August, Coffeecup / Linux, FCKeditor, Arachnofilia
XML Editor XML Spy XMLMind XML Editor, Vim, Emacs.
Perl/Python/Tcl IDE Komodo Komodo, Perl Dev Kit.
Java IDE JBuilder, IDEA Jbuilder, NetBeans, Eclipse, Sun ONE Studio. [formerly Forte], Vide.
J2EE based application server ??? JBoss.
IDE for Oracle Database development T.O.A.D., SQL Navigator, PL/SQL Developer Tora
CASE-facility for UML ArgoUML, Together ControlCenter Umbrello UML Modeller, Dia+Dia2Code, PoceidonCE (community edition), ArgoUML, Together ControlCenter
Top-level CASE system Rational Rose. Rational Rose.
HEX-editor Hiew Biew, KHexEdit, hexedit (console), GHex
Clipper Compiler and Preprocessor CA-Clipper, The Harbour Project Clip, The Harbour Project, xHarbour.
Platform in dot-net style Microsoft .Net Mono, DotGNU/Portable.NET
CVS WinCVS, TortoiseCVS, cvs for Windows, BitKeeper cvs (console), Cervisia (KDE), Lincvs. (Front-end for CVS), BitKeeper, SubVersion. (enhanced CVS-like platform + WebDAV -> SCM)
IDE for Interbase/Firebird development IBExpert IBAccess, IBAdmin, IBWebAdmin (apache / php)
Visual Basic Visual Basic Phoenix, KBasic, HBasic, Mono
Graphical libraries WinAPI, MFC, VCL (C, C++), Tk (Tcl, C), Tkinter (over Tk for Python, Perl, etc), wxWindows (C++) (over winapi), wxPython (Python) (over wxWindows), GTK+ (link #2) (C, C++), Qt (C++), FLTK (C++), AWT, Swing (Java), Xaw – part of X-server (C) X11/Xext (C) – low level libraries, used by others, Xt – X Toolkit (C) – reference X11 toolkit, Xaw – MIT Athena (C) – reference X11 toolkit, Xaw3d – MIT Athena 3D (C) – Athena with 3D-view, LessTif – opensource analog of Motif 1 (C), OpenMotif (C),Tk (Tcl, C), Tkinter (over Tk for Python, Perl, etc), wxWindows (C++) (over GTK+ – wxGtk or Motif – wxMotif), wxPython (Python) (over wxWindows),) Qt (C++), GTK+ (C, C++), PyQt (over Qt for Python), PyGTK (over GTK+ for Python), Gtk::Perl (over GTK+ for Perl), Qt for Perl (over Qt for Perl), GtkAda (over GTK+ for Ada95), FLTK (C++), XView (C), FOX (C++), AWT, Swing (Java), WinAPI and MFC through wine (C)
Source Code Documentation System ??? Doxygen, CWEB
Memory Leak Tracing Numega Bounds Checker, Rational Purify MallocDebug, Valgrind, Kcachegrind, ElectricFence, dmalloc, ccmalloc, LeakTracer, memprof, BoundsChecker, mprof, Insure, dbx. (for Sparc), YAMD, Njamd, Mpatrol
Application Development Profiling (tests code performance) ??? gProf, JUnit. (Java)
Software projecting Rational Rose, Enterprise Architec, Visio ???
Game programming DirectX, libSDL, ClanLib libSDL, ClanLib
Bug Tracking System ??? Bugzilla.
Object Request Broker (ORB) ORBIT ORBIT
Portability ??? Autoconf, Automake & Libtool.
Source code indexer and cross-referencer ??? GNU GLOBAL, LXR.
Dynamic tracer of system calls ??? Syscalltrack.
XML C parser libxml (???) Libxml2.
FoxPro Visual FoxPro qwerty

Server Softwre

Description Windows Linux
Web (HTTP) Server Apache, IIS, Roxen, wn, cern-httpd, dhttpd, caudium, aolserver, Boa Apache, Xitami, Thttp, TUX (Red Hat Content Accelerator), PublicFile, Boa, Caudium, Roxen, Zeus, Thy.
FTP Server Internet Information Server, ServU, War FTP, BulletProof FTP server, FileZilla server, pure-ftpd, vsftpd, wu-ftpd, proftpd, gl-ftpd, ftp, PublicFile, Teepeedee
Web Development Languages PHP, Perl, ASP PHP, Perl, ASP module for Apache
Database Engine MS SQL, MySQL, IBM DB2, Oracle, Informix, Borland Interbase, FireBird Sybase Adaptive Server Enterprise, PostgreSQL, The most advanced open source database, MySQL, The most popular open source database, mSQL, SAP DB, IBM DB2, IBM DB2, Oracle, PostgreSQL Linter (cyrillic), Informix, Firebird
Email Servers MDaemon, Hamster Sendmail, Qmail, Postfix, Exim.
Email / PIM / Groupware server Microsoft Exchange, Lotus Domino Citadel, CommuniGate Pro, Bynari’s Insight GroupWare Suite, Samsung Contact, Teamware Office, Novell Netmail, Amphora. (Zope / Qmail), Tutos. (Apache / PHP / Mysql / Sendmail), Kroupware. The project from the KDE PIM developers, which is being financed by the government of Germany, SuSe Linux Openexchange Server, PHPGroupware, SCOoffice Mail Server (SCO – m.d. :), LinuXchangE, OpenOffice.org Groupware Project, Tiki CMS/Groupware. (Apache / PHP / Mysql), Lotus Domino
Mail filter / spam killer cygwin+Exim port SpamAssassin, Procmail, Mailfilter, Cyrus-imap, Exim, POPFile.
Mail downloader MDaemon Fetchmail
Server / router on one diskette. Impossible muLinux, Dachstein (firewall / dhcp), Serverdisk (http / ftp), Fli4l
Proxy server MS Proxy Server, WinGate Squid, Paco, Privoxy, Wwwoffle, OOPS
Server for supporting Java Servlets and JSP, can work with Apache Tomcat Tomcat
Advanced server statistics AWStats AWStats. (All web-, ftp-, proxy-, mail-, wap- and streaming-servers), ANALOG. (Web-server), Awffull
Cluster Management ??? LVS – The Linux Virtual Server.
Cluster filesystems GFS, ADIC GFS, OpenGFS, Lustre. (not SAN compatible?), Matrix Server, CXFS, GPFS, Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS), Coda, Intermezzo,) Convolo cluster, ADIC.
Web Mail SquirrelMail IMP, CAMAS. (for Caudium web-server), SquirrelMail

Scientific and Specialty

Description Windows Linux
Check out this link Scientific Applications on Linux many links to both OSS and proprietary applications.
Math system in MathCad style Mathcad Gap
Math system in Matlab style Matlab Matlab. [FTP], Octave. (+ Gnuplot), Scilab, R, Yorick, rlab, Yacas, Euler.
Math system in Mathematica style Mathematica Mathematica. [Prop], Maxima, MuPad, NumExp, Mathomatic
Math system in Maple style Maple Maple, Maxima, MuPad
Equation / math editor Mathtype, MS Equation Editor, OpenOffice Math OpenOffice Math, MathMLed, Kformula (Koffice), LyX, Texmacs.
Programs for three-dimensional modeling SolidWorks,CATIA, SolidEdge ProEngineer Linux, CATIA. It was designed under Unix, and from version 4 (2000) it was ported under Windows (not too successfully), SolidEdge (part of more powerful package Unigraphics).
Engineering ANSYS ANSYS
CAD/CAM/CAE AutoCAD, Microstation, ArchiCAD Varkon, Linuxcad, Varicad, Cycas, Tomcad, Thancad, Fandango (alpha-version), Lignumcad, Giram, Jcad, QSCad, FreeEngineer, Ocadis, PythonCAD, OpenCascade
CAD/CAM/CAE, simplified AutoCAD Lite Qcad
Desktop Publishing Systems Adobe PageMaker, QuarkXPress Adobe Framemaker. [Proprietary, cancelled]
Small desktop publishing systems MS Publisher Scribus – Desktop Publishing for Linux, KWord.
Diagram and chart designer Microsoft Visio Kivio (Koffice), Dia, KChart, xfig, Tgif + dotty, Tulip, Poseidon for UML, JGraph + JGraphPad. (Java)
Geographic image processing software Erdas Imagine, ER Mapper, ENVI ENVI.
GIS (Geographical information system) ArcView All projects: FreeGIS Project, Grass, Quantum GIS, PostGIS, FreeGIS, MapQuest, MapBlast
Interactive Geographic Data Viewer Thuban Thuban
Vectorization of bitmaps MapEdit, Easy Trace Autotrace.
Software CNC, controlling machine tools OpenCNC [Prop] EMC.
Advanced text processing system in TeX style MikTex, emTeX (DOS) TeX, TeTeX / LaTeX, LyX (WYSIWYM), Kile
Convenient, functional and user-friendly TeX-files / dvi-files editor. WinEdt Kile (KDE Integrated LaTeX Environment), Ktexmaker2, Tk LaTeX Editor.
Statistical Computing Language and Environment S-PLUS R.
Statistical analysis SPSS, Statistica, SalStat PSPP, OpenStat2, “Probability and Statistics Utilities for Linux users”, SalStat.
Econometrics Software Eviews, Gretl Gretl
Emulation of the circuit Electronic Workbench, Altera MaxPlus+ Geda, Oregano, Xcircuit, Gnome Assisted Electronics, SPICE. SPICE OPUS, NG-SPICE.
Program to draw chemical structures Chemdraw, Isisdraw Xdrawchem.
Downloader and player for Olympus dictophone Olympus DSS Player ???
Market analysis MetaStock ???
Electronics scheme design PCAD, OrCad, Visio Eagle, Geda
The oscilloscope emulation Winoscillo Xoscope
Measurement of the temperature and voltages on motherboard MBMonitor, PCAlert, Speedfan KSensors, KHealthCare (KDE), Gkrellm + plugins + blackbox addons
S.M.A.R.T-attributes and temperature of the hard disk Bundled on CD with mainboard, Active SMART smartctl, Hddtemp-0.3, IDEload-0.2, Smartsuite-2.1, Smartmontools, Ide-smart, Smartsuite
Memory testing SiSoft SANDRA Memtest86.
Program for watching temperatures, fanspeeds, etc SiSoft SANDRA, SiSoft SAMANTHA Ksensors, Lm_sensors, xsensors, wmsensormon and other applets for AfterStep / WindowMaker / FluxBox
HDD testing / benchmarking SiSoft SANDRA, SiSoft SAMANTHA, IOzone hdparm, Bonnie++, IOzone, Dbench, Bonnie, IO Bench, Nhfsstone, SPEC SFS.
Video testing / benchmarking Final Reality X11perf, Viewperf
Realtime Control SHA Sybera Hardware Access DIAPM RTAI – Realtime Application Interface
Simulator of nets ??? NS
Neural network simulation ??? Xnbc, Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator (SNNS).
“Sensor for LCD” ??? Sensors-lcd.
Electrocardiogram viewer ??? ecg2png.
A software technology, that turns x86 computer into a full-function PLC-like process controller SoftPLC MatPLC
Catalog of software translators ??? Linux for translators.
Translation memory Trados Translators Workbench, Deja Vu, Star Transit, SDLX, OmegaT OmegaT.
Catalog of educational software ??? SchoolForge, Seul / EDU.
Designing and viewing DTDs NearFar Designer ???
Finity Element Analysis ??? FELT (Finity Element Analysis)

Emulators

Description Windows Linux
Virtual machine emulator VMWare, Connectix Virtual PC VMWare, Win4Lin, Bochs, Plex86, User Mode Linux, QEMU, VirtualBox
Linux emulator CygWin, MKS Toolkit, Bash for Windows, Minimalist GNU For Windows. User Mode Linux
X Window System (XFree) emulator CygWin, MKS Toolkit, Bash for Windows, Minimalist GNU For Windows User Mode Linux
Windows emulator ??? Wine (GUI: gwine, tkwine), Transgaming WineX. (GUI: tqgui) [NF], Crossover Office
DOS emulator DOSBox, Dosemu.
Sony PlayStation emulator ePSXe ePSXe, Pcsx
ZX Spectrum emulator X128, Speccyal, SpecX, SpecEmu, UnrealSpeccy Xzx, Glukalka, Fuse, ZXSP-X, FBZX, SpectEmu
Arcade machines emulator ??? MAME, Xmame / Xmess, Advancemame Frontends:advancemenu. ckmame. flynn. gmame. gnomame. grok. grustibus. gxmame. it. it’s quit. fancy. kmamerun. kmamu. qmamecat. startxmame. setcleaner. tkmame.
ST emulator Steem. StonX, Steem
C64 emulator ??? Vice, Frodo
Amiga emulator ??? UAE, WinUAE
Mac 68k emulator ??? Basilisk II.
Game boy emulator Visual Boy Advance Visual Boy Advance, VGBA. (GUI: vgb-gui)
Atari 2600 Video Computer System emulator Stella Stella, Saint
NES / SNES emulator Zsnes, Snes9x Zsnes, Snes9x, FWNes, GTuxNes
M680x0 Arcade emulator Rainemu. Rainemu.
Multi / other emulators ??? M.E.S.S., Zinc

Other/Entertainment

Description Windows Linux
Space simulator Openuniverse, Celestia, Zetadeck Openuniverse, Celestia, Kstars, Zetadeck
TV driver ??? RivaTV, ivtv
System, running from CD/DVD without installing (Live CD) Windows PE, PE Builder. Mandriva One, Knoppix, Cool Linux, Blin, DemoLinux, DyneBolic, Gentoo (live CD), Lonix, Virtual Linux, Bootable Business Card (LNX-BBC), ByzantineOS, FreeLoader Linux, MoviX, Freeduc CD, SuSE live-eval CD, Freedom Linux, Eagle Linux, Kurumin (Brazilian Portuguese only), Ubuntu Live, ALT Linux Live
Boot rescue/tools diskette Windows system diskette Linux system diskette, Tomsrtbt, BanShee Linux, RIP, Ultimate Boot CD
Creation of LiveCD for system recovery ??? Make CD-ROM Recovery
File systems FAT16, FAT32, NTFS Ext2, Ext3, ReiserFS, XFS
Local file systems mount ext2fs (driver), explore2fs (program) – ext2/3 under Windows Linux-NTFS. (driver for NTFS partitions mounting)
Installing software and uninstalling InstallShield, WISE, GhostInstaller, Microsoft Installer – the analog of rpm Rpm, Urpmi, GnoRpm, Nautilus RPM, Apt-get & frontends (synaptic, aptitude, …), Apt-rpm. (for RedHat, SuSE, ALT Linux, etc), yum (Yellowdog Updater Modified), yum enhanced by ASPLinux, Gentoo Portage
Installing software from source and uninstalling Minimalist GNU For Windows make install, make uninstall, CheckInstall, Sinstall, Emerge (Gentoo), Apt-get & frontends (synaptic, aptitude)
System update Windows Update Ximian Red Carpet, Red Hat Network, MandrakeOnline, SuSE YaST Online Update, Caldera Volution Online, Apt, Gentoo ebuilds (portage), Debian GNU/Linux package search, Yum.
Certification MCSD, MCT, MCSE Red Hat Certification, Sair Linux and GNU Certification, Linux Professional Institute Certification (LPIC), Linux+, Prometric, VUE
Icons on desktop Explorer Desktop File Manager, Idesk.
Work with screensavers Desktop properties xset, xlockmore, xscreensaver, kscreensaver
Place for keeping “removed” files Trash Trash Can, Libtrash.
Checking the hard disk Scandisk fsck -check or reiserfsck -check.Not needed with journaled file systems (reiserfs, ext3, jfs, xfs)
Defragmentation defrag Not needed
GUI of the system Windows Explorer Kde, Gnome, IceWM, Windowmaker, Blackbox, Fluxbox, etc.
Windows XP GUI Windows XP XPde.
Fast users / desktop switching Windows XP feature for non- networked computers Ctrl+Alt+F1, login as new user at command-line interface, start GUI by entering command startx – – :1. Switch between screens using Ctrl+Alt+F7 or F8 depending on user.2) Command “gdmflexiserver -n”. 3) Built-in in KDE 3.1.
Flavors of the system 9x, NT, XP RedHat, Mandrake, Knoppix, Debian, SuSE, ALT, ASP, Gentoo, Slackware, Linux From Scratch, …
Tactics FUD (fear, uncertainty, doubt) Open Source!”First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win”.
Source code of the kernel freely available No Of course 🙂
Command line and scripting command.com 🙂 , cmd.exe, Windows Scripting Host, 4DOS / 4NT, Minimalist GNU For Windows, Unix tools for Windows (AT&T), KiXtart, ScriptLogic Bash, Csh, Zsh, Ash, Tcsh
Free of charge operating system Microsoft Windows. (Note: Estimates are that in Russia 95% of users have a pirated copy of Windows). Linux – the Free operating system!!
The magazines Windows Magazine Linux Journal, Linux Gazette, Linux magazine, Linux pratico (Italy), Australian Linux, Linux Format
Fail! Blue Screen Of Death (BSOD) Kernel panic, Screensaver “bsod”
Whom to curse for bugs and defects of the system M$, Bill Gates personally Developers of the distribution, All the Linux people and Linus Torvalds personally, Yourself and your own /dev/hands
Homebase M$.com GNU.org, FSF.org
Where to find out more Windows.com Linux.org
Dominant Vision Bill Gates, “Road ahead” Linus Torvalds, “Just for fun” 🙂
Seminal Publication Bill Gates, “Business @ the speed of thought” Richard M. Stallman, “The right to read”.The book: “Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M. Stallman”

External Links

http://www.linuxalt.com/

http://wiki.linuxquestions.org/wiki/Linux_software_equivalent_to_Windows_software

Blue Feather prie zuikos

Heh, šian netyčiukais aptikau Old School MuOnline 🙂 vat pažaidžiau valandikę ar dvi 🙂 ten vaikai ieško Blue Feather 🙂 he he 🙂 stadium ir pan bruduose 🙂 he he 🙂 o as pats kai žaidęs buvau Kobra – Mu 🙂 tai pamenu, kad Blue Feather prie Zuikos mėtės, nuėjau, per pora minučiu BF ir gavau, parašiau vaikam, sakau BF prie zuikos radau per pora minučių. Tie iškart užsipuolė, kas ta zuika? Kur jin yra? 😀 sakau vaikai vaikai 🙂 zuika tarkano gale… 30 – 130 maždaug 🙂 he he 🙂 tai priviso jų ten dafiga 🙂 🙂

Ger, einu ruoštis kūčioms 😉
Linksmų švenčių 😉