Category Archives: Kompai

Viskas apie kompus

Keliu monitoriu reguliavimas su xrandr

Sveiki,

Dvieju monitoriu konfiguravimas per cmd be admin teisių.

Pradžiai pažiūrėkim kokius monikus mes matom:


xrandr


Screen 0: minimum 320 x 200, current 1280 x 1024, maximum 8192 x 8192
VGA1 connected 1280x1024+0+0 (normal left inverted right x axis y axis) 443mm x 249mm
1600x900 60.0 +
1280x1024 75.0 60.0*
1152x864 75.0
1024x768 75.1 60.0
800x600 75.0 60.3
640x480 75.0 60.0
720x400 70.1
HDMI1 connected 1280x1024+0+0 (normal left inverted right x axis y axis) 376mm x 301mm
1280x1024 60.0*+ 75.0
1280x960 60.0
1152x864 75.0
1024x768 75.1 70.1 60.0
832x624 74.6
800x600 72.2 75.0 60.3 56.2
640x480 72.8 75.0 66.7 60.0
720x400 70.1
DP1 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)
HDMI2 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)
DP2 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)


Ir pasitvarkom kaip mums reikia:


xrandr –output VGA1 –left-of HDMI1


Kopija iš: Dual Monitors not working since upgrading to KDE 4.10

Grub2 boot debian and debian-kfreebsd

menuentry ‘Debian GNU/kFreeBSD, with kFreeBSD 9.0-2-amd64′ –class debian –class gnu-kfreebsd –class gnu –class os {
insmod part_msdos
insmod zfs
set root='(/dev/ada0,msdos3)’
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root ffdedb2e77090087
echo ‘Loading kernel of FreeBSD 9.0-2-amd64 …’
kfreebsd /r/@/boot/kfreebsd-9.0-2-amd64.gz
insmod part_msdos
insmod zfs
set root='(/dev/ada0,msdos3)’
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root ffdedb2e77090087
kfreebsd_module_elf /r/@/lib/modules/9.0-2-amd64/opensolaris.ko
insmod part_msdos
insmod zfs
set root='(/dev/ada0,msdos3)’
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root ffdedb2e77090087
kfreebsd_module /r/@/boot/zfs/zpool.cache type=/boot/zfs/zpool.cache
insmod part_msdos
insmod zfs
set root='(/dev/ada0,msdos3)’
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root ffdedb2e77090087
kfreebsd_module_elf /r/@/lib/modules/9.0-2-amd64/zfs.ko
set kFreeBSD.vfs.root.mountfrom=zfs:p/r
set kFreeBSD.vfs.root.mountfrom.options=rw
}
menuentry ‘Debian GNU/kFreeBSD, with kFreeBSD 9.0-2-amd64 (recovery mode)’ –class debian –class gnu-kfreebsd –class gnu –class os {
insmod part_msdos
insmod zfs
set root='(/dev/ada0,msdos3)’
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root ffdedb2e77090087
echo ‘Loading kernel of FreeBSD 9.0-2-amd64 …’
kfreebsd /r/@/boot/kfreebsd-9.0-2-amd64.gz -s
insmod part_msdos
insmod zfs
set root='(/dev/ada0,msdos3)’
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root ffdedb2e77090087
kfreebsd_module_elf /r/@/lib/modules/9.0-2-amd64/opensolaris.ko
insmod part_msdos
insmod zfs
set root='(/dev/ada0,msdos3)’
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root ffdedb2e77090087
kfreebsd_module /r/@/boot/zfs/zpool.cache type=/boot/zfs/zpool.cache
insmod part_msdos
insmod zfs
set root='(/dev/ada0,msdos3)’
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root ffdedb2e77090087
kfreebsd_module_elf /r/@/lib/modules/9.0-2-amd64/zfs.ko
set kFreeBSD.vfs.root.mountfrom=zfs:p/r
set kFreeBSD.vfs.root.mountfrom.options=rw
}
menuentry ‘Debian GNU/Linux, with Linux 3.2.0-4-686-pae’ –class debian –class gnu-linux –class gnu –class os {
load_video
insmod gzio
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,msdos5)’
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root eb7202f2-a3a2-4d6f-81de-c5f0d72fa607
echo ‘Loading Linux 3.2.0-4-686-pae …’
linux /vmlinuz-3.2.0-4-686-pae root=UUID=c50de1a8-dc6b-4414-8f6f-d90ecd5e5209 ro quiet
echo ‘Loading initial ramdisk …’
initrd /initrd.img-3.2.0-4-686-pae
}
menuentry ‘Debian GNU/Linux, with Linux 3.2.0-4-686-pae (recovery mode)’ –class debian –class gnu-linux –class gnu –class os {
load_video
insmod gzio
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,msdos5)’
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root eb7202f2-a3a2-4d6f-81de-c5f0d72fa607
echo ‘Loading Linux 3.2.0-4-686-pae …’
linux /vmlinuz-3.2.0-4-686-pae root=UUID=c50de1a8-dc6b-4414-8f6f-d90ecd5e5209 ro single
echo ‘Loading initial ramdisk …’
initrd /initrd.img-3.2.0-4-686-pae

Naujas kompiuteris. Pigiausias pigiausias variantas. Susirink kompiuteri pats. 3-oji 2013 savaitė.

Sveiki,

šiandien pasirinkau surinkti patį pigiausią kompiuterį, kokį tik įmanoma: a1.lt

Prekė/aprašymas Kaina
JNC ATX MIDITOWER RJA-320 87.00 Lt
Crucial Spectek 8GB DDR3 PC3-10600 CL9 ST102464BA1339 117.00 Lt
Western Digital CAVIAR Blue 250GB SATA 7200RPM 16MB WD2500AAKX 163.00 Lt
Gigabyte GA-E350N 203.00 Lt

Šis variantas pasižymi išskirtine plokšte su integruotu APU. Reiktų susižinoti, ar ši dėžutė tinka šiai plokštei… Jei ką, reiktų keisti JNC ATX MIDITOWER RJA-320 į jei taip viskas pabrangsta 27 Lt. Bet lygtais galėtų būti suderinta…

Norėčiau paminėti, kaip mes galime pajungti monitorių… Ši Motininė plokštė turi VGA ir HDMI jungtis.

Papildomai, neturintiems monitoriaus vėlgi pigiausias monitorius šiuo metu a1.lt parduotuvėje: BenQ GL955A už 271Lt ir bendra kainikė būtų: 841.00 Lt su monitoriumi, be monitoriaus 570.00 Lt

Naujas kompiuteris. Pigiausias variantas. Susirink kompiuteri pats. 2-oji 2013 savaitė.

Sveiki,

Sumąsčiau kažkada, kad reiktų išsileisti tokią rubrikėlę, kur būtų surenkami kompai pagal kažkokį kriterijų… Pradėsiu nuo pirmo pigiausio, šiai dienai.

Pagrindiniai reikalavimai pigiam kompiuteriui:

  • Kompiuteris turi palaikyti šiuolaikines OS
  • Kompiuteris turi “pavešti” vidutinių reikalavimų kompiuterinius žaidimus
  • Kompiuteris turi būti PIGUS!

Pagrindiniai sunkumai buvo apsispręsti ar rinktis iš vienos parduotuvės visas prekes ar iš kelių bet pigiausias…
Po šiokių tokių svarstymų nusprendžiau rinktis tik iš Fortako el. parduotuvės.

Nr. Kodas Prekė Kiekis Kaina su PVM Suma
1 RJA-272BLACK CASE MIDITOWER ATX 350W P4/BLACK RJA-272 JNC 1 91,15 91,15
2 XDC-BETA10 Cpu cooler, AMD, socket FM1/AM3+/AM3/AM2+/AM2/940/939/754, 92 mm fan, hydro bearing,89W 1 17,18 17,18
3 ST250DM000 HDD SATA 250GB 7200RPM 6GB/S/16MB ST250DM000 SEAGATE 1 165,79 165,79
4 BLS4G3D1339DS1S00CEU Crucial 4GB Ballistix sport 1333MHz DDR3 CL9 NON-ECC DIMM 1.5V Heat Spreader 2 55,87 111,74
5 F1A55-M LX R2.0 ASUS F1A55-M LX R2.0, A55 FCH, DualDDR3-1866, 6xSATA2, D-SUB, GBLAN, mATX 1 175,19 175,19
6 AD3400OJHXBOX AMD APU A4 X2 3400 65W FM1 1MB 2700MHZ 1 128,03 128,03
Jei CPU neturi kartu parduodamo aušintuvo Viso: 689,08
Jei CPU turi kartu parduodamą aušintuvą Viso: 671,90

Taigi, pazymetas “kūleris” aušintuvas, gali būti nereikalingas Jei pasiskambinsite į parduotuvę ir pasiklauskite ar su CPU yra aušintuvas, nors man atrodo, kad jis yra, bet visvien radau dar papildomą. Taigi Jums užduotis tiesiog pasiskambinti ir užsisakyti susirinkti ir džiaugtis.

Na kaip ir kolkas tiek…

postfix pašo serveris [sasl2+dovecot+maildir]

Laba diena,

pasigaminau savo pašto serveriuką: Viskas labai paprasta…

Domenas: lpic.lt
Useris: usernameas
Pass: Pass123!

Iš esmės mums reikia susidiegti


aptitude update && aptitude -y install postfix sasl2-bin dovecot-pop3d dovecot-imapd


besidiegiant jūsų klaus klausimų, galite į juos neatsakinėti… arba įrašom betką!
Tuomet įmetam į postfix konfigą /etc/postfix/main.cf:


myorigin = /etc/mailname
smtpd_banner = $myhostname ESMTP
biff = no
append_dot_mydomain = no
delay_warning_time = 4h
readme_directory = no
smtpd_tls_cert_file=/etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem
smtpd_tls_key_file=/etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key
smtpd_use_tls=yes
smtpd_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtpd_scache
smtp_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtp_scache
myhostname = lpic.lt
alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases
alias_database = hash:/etc/aliases
myorigin = /etc/mailname
mydestination = mail.lpic.lt, localhost.lt, localhost, $myhostname
mydomain = myhostname
virtual_alias_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/virtual
relayhost =
mynetworks = 127.0.0.0/8 [::ffff:127.0.0.0]/104 [::1]/128
mailbox_size_limit = 0
recipient_delimiter = +
inet_interfaces = all
# Nurodome, kokiame kataloge bus saugoma ir jei gale / tai bus maildir formatas
# siuo atveju namų direktorijoje mail kataloge.
home_mailbox = mail/
smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
smtpd_recipient_restrictions = permit_mynetworks, permit_sasl_authenticated, reject_unauth_destination, reject_rbl_client zen.spamhaus.org, reject_rbl_client bl.spamcop.net


Naujus naudotojus apsirasome faile: /etc/postfix/virtual formatu:


usernameas@lpic.lt usernameas


Konfiginam SASL2

SASL2 yra kaip autorizavimo framework… jis atsakingas už autorizaciją. Postfix yra chrootintas, mums reikia sasl’ą patalpinti į postfix matomą dir. Taigi konfiginam SASL /etc/default/saslauthd:


START=yes
DESC="SASL Authentication Daemon"
NAME="saslauthd"
MECHANISMS="pam"
MECH_OPTIONS=""
THREADS=5
OPTIONS="-c -m /var/spool/postfix/var/run/saslauthd -r"


Pridedam Postfix naudotoją į SASL grupę:


usermod -G sasl postfix


Sukuriam direktoriją:


mkdir -p /var/spool/postfix/var/run/saslauthd


Pakeičiame savininką SASL direktorijos:


chown root:sasl /var/spool/postfix/var/run/saslauthd


konfiginam Dovecot

Dovecot demonas atsakingas už laiškų atidavimą iš serverio į naudotojo kompiuterį.
Tikrinam konfigų failą /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf:


!include_try /usr/share/dovecot/protocols.d/*.protocol
base_dir = /var/run/dovecot/
login_greeting = POPka3D is READY for your ATTENSION.
doveadm_worker_count = 4
import_environment = TZ
dict {
#quota = mysql:/etc/dovecot/dovecot-dict-sql.conf.ext
#expire = sqlite:/etc/dovecot/dovecot-dict-sql.conf.ext
}
!include conf.d/*.conf
!include_try local.conf


ir papildomus dovecot failus:
/etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-auth.conf:


auth_mechanisms = plain login
!include auth-system.conf.ext


/etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-mail.conf:


mail_location = maildir:~/mail
namespace inbox {
inbox = yes
}


Konfiginam DNS

DNS’e turi būti MX įrašas:


10 mail.lpic.lt


Ir A įrašas į serverio IP adresą. Arba tiesiog MX įrašas be www vardo, o vardą pakeičiant IP adresu.

man (manual) levels

Sistemos administravimo komandos (dazniausiai pasiekiamos tik root)

man level Description
1 Vykdomos (eXecutable) programos ar kevalo (shell) komandos
2 Sisteminiai kreipiniai (linux branduolio teikiamos funkcijos)
3 Biblioteku kreipiniai (programu biblioteku teikiamos funkcijos)
4 Specialus failai (dazniausiai randami /dev)
5 Failu formatai ir konvencijos (susitarimai), pvz.: /etc/passwd
6 Zaidimai
7 Ivairus (iskaitant makro (macro) paketus ir konvencijos), pvz.: man(7), groff(7)
8
9 Linux branduolio rutinos [non standard]

Pora pavyzdziu naudojantis man kaomanda:


man -wa man
man -a man
man -w man
man 1 man


Tvarka, kuria ieskomi man puslapiai nustatoma globaliu kintamuoju: MANSECT. Jeigu tokio nera, ieskoma: 1:8:2:3:4:5:6:7:9:tcl:n:l:p:o.

bash trumpiniai (shortcuts, hotkeys)

Designator Description
!! Skaitoma: bang-bang, si komanda iskviecia paskutine komanda. Sauktukas daznai vadinamas bang Linux ir Unix sistemose.
!n Iskviecia n-taja komanda isistorijos. history komandos pagalba galime pamatyti siuos numerius.
!-n Kreipiames i pries n enter paspaudimu vykdyta komanda is istorijos.
!string Kvieciame paskutine komanda, kuri prasidejo string.
!?string iskvieciam paskutine komanda, kurioje buvo pamineta string.
^str1^str2 Greitas pakeitimas. Pakartojame paskutine (ar anksciausiai rasta istorijoje) komanda pakeisdami pirma str1 i str2.
C-p ir ↑ Paskutini komanda
C-n ir ↓ Sekanti komanda
C-b ir ← Atgal vienu simboliu
C-f ir → Priekin vienu simboliu
C-a ir Home I eilutes pradzia
C-e ir End I eilutes pabaiga
C-l ir clear Isvalyti ekrana
M-< I istorijos pradzia
M-> I istorijos pabaiga
C-d ir delete Istrinti (delete) simboli is desines
C-k Istrinti (delete/Kill) viska nuo kursoriaus i desine iki EOL(end Of Line – eilutes pabaigos)
C-w Istrinti (delete/kill) viska nuo kursoriaus i kaire iki eilutes pradzios
C-y Iklijuoti (paste/Yank) istrinta teksta
M-d Istrinti (delete/kill) zodi
C-rtext Atbuline text paieska
Cstext Paieska i prieki text

Ninite suinstaliuok viska vienu diegimu 7-Zip AVG Chrome Dropbox Evernote FileZilla Firefox Flash Flash (IE) Foxit Reader Google Drive Google Earth ImgBurn Launchy LibreOffice Notepad++ Opera PDFCreator Picasa Pidgin PuTTY Revo Safari Silverlight Skype Thunderbird uTorrent VLC Winamp WinDirStat WinMerge WinSCP Unattended Silent Installer and Updater

Sveiki,

mano draugas, pasiule instaliuojantis kompa vienu diegimu sudiegti visas norimas programas. Tam naudoja Ninite servisa. Sios tarnybos pagalba, galima netik susidiegti bet ir atsinaujinti programas.

Tai tiek.

iptables router

Sveiki,

susilaukiau klausimu, kaip pasidalinti internetu su kitu kompu turint dvi tinklo plokstes.

Taigi labai paprasta. Tikriausiai Jus naudojate standartini branduoliuka, del to ten bus visi branduolio moduliai ijungti.
Bet del viso ko galite pasibandyti, jei tingit, pereinam prie FW script’uko:


lsmod | grep ip_tables
lsmod | grep x_tables


Jei ten negauname rezultato:


~# lsmod | grep ip_tables
ip_tables 22042 3 iptable_filter,iptable_nat,iptable_mangle
x_tables 19073 11 ip_tables,iptable_filter,iptable_nat,ipt_MASQUERADE,xt_state,xt_tcpudp,ipt_LOG,ipt_REJECT,xt_limit,xt_multiport,iptable_mangle
~# lsmod | grep x_tables
x_tables 19073 11 ip_tables,iptable_filter,iptable_nat,ipt_MASQUERADE,xt_state,xt_tcpudp,ipt_LOG,ipt_REJECT,xt_limit,xt_multiport,iptable_mangle


Tuomet tiesiog pameginkime juos uzkrauti 🙂


modprobe ip_tables
modprobe x_tables


Ir issisaugoti automatiskai kraunamu moduliu sarase:


echo "ip_tables" >> /etc/modules
echo "x_tables" >> /etc/modules


SVARBU!

IPTABLES skaito taisykles EILES TVARKA!!! Taigi UZDAROME PABAIGOJE!

Taigi beliko tik pasirasyti FW script’uka (P.S. pas jus gal neveiks conntrack –ctstate , tai keiskite state –state):


#!/bin/bash
#
export PATH="/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin"
# apsirasom IPTABLES
IPTABLES="/sbin/iptables"
# Isvalom esamas taisykles
$IPTABLES -F
$IPTABLES -X
$IPTABLES -t nat -F
$IPTABLES -t nat -X
$IPTABLES -P INPUT ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -P FORWARD ACCEPT
# Local interface:
LOCAL_IF=eth1
# External (Internetas) interface:
INTER_IF=eth0
# jei Jusu IP statinis siulau nurotyri rankiniu budu:
INTER_IP="11.222.33.4"
# Pas mane dinaminis IP todel as ji gaudau per skriptuka... Jei Jusu statinis IP, uzkomentuokite sia eilute
INTER_IP=`ip addr show eth0 | grep "inet " | awk '{print $2}' | cut -f1 -d\/`
#
# Ijungiu FORWARDinima:
echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
$IPTABLES -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o $INTER_IF -j MASQUERADE
# Tinklas LAN'ui
$IPTABLES -A FORWARD -i $INTER_IF -o $LOCAL_IF -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
# Jei neveikia -m conntrack --ctstate ...
# $IPTABLES -A FORWARD -i $INTER_IF -o $LOCAL_IF -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -A FORWARD -i $LOCAL_IF -o $INTER_IF -j ACCEPT
#
# Kuriu naujas/papildomas grandis:
$IPTABLES -N TCP_DROP_LOG
$IPTABLES -N UDP_DROP_LOG
$IPTABLES -N TCP_ACCEPT_LOG
$IPTABLES -N UDP_ACCEPT_LOG
$IPTABLES -N LOGDROP
$IPTABLES -N LOGDROP2
#
# Leidziu VISKA is VIDAUS
$IPTABLES -A INPUT -i $LOCAL_IF -j ACCEPT
#
# Accept PING, kartais naudinga, patikrint ar jusu servas gyvas
$IPTABLES -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -A OUTPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT
#
# Leidziu uzmegstas sesijas
$IPTABLES -A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
#
# $IPTABLES -A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
#
# Visus kas kreipiasi i 22 poerta is isores, loginam :)
$IPTABLES -A INPUT -d $INTER_IP --proto tcp --dport 22 -j LOGDROP
#
### PORT FORWARDING
### PORT FORWARD
#
# SSH SERVER internete pasiekiamas per 212 porta, nors realiai kito LAN'e esancio kompo (192.168.168.192) 22 portas
# $IPTABLES -t nat -A PREROUTING -i $INTER_IP --proto tcp --dport 212 -j DNAT --to 192.168.168.192:22
#
# rdp forward i 192.168.111.252 win xp winxp XP masina
$IPTABLES -t nat -A PREROUTING -i $INTER_IP --proto tcp --dport 3389 -j DNAT --to 192.168.111.252:3389
#
#
$IPTABLES -A LOGDROP2 -j LOG --log-prefix "DROPPED " --log-level 4 --log-ip-options --log-tcp-options --log-tcp-sequence
$IPTABLES -A LOGDROP2 -j DROP
$IPTABLES -A LOGDROP -m limit --limit 1/second --limit-burst 10 -j LOGDROP2
$IPTABLES -A LOGDROP -m limit --limit 2/minute --limit-burst 1 -j LOG --log-prefix "LIMITED " --log-level 4
$IPTABLES -A LOGDROP -j DROP
#
##### Po sios komandos, isijungia FIREWALL! ATSARGIAI!
#
$IPTABLES -A INPUT -i $INTER_IF -j DROP
#
logger -p info -t syslog "firewall updated"
exit 0


Na va pas jus toks minimalus, noob’iskas firewall’as 🙂

External links

Gentoo iptables for newbies

skanaus 🙂

(!COPY!) How to Hack wifi (and how to avoid being hacked) WEP/WPA/WPA2 (!COPY!)

This guide is meant to show how easy it is to hack wireless networks if the proper security measures are not in place. First I will show how to hack a WEP or WPA/WPA2 Network and then I will give tips on how to avoid getting hacked.

This is important information in our techno-savy culture. If your wireless network is compromised you can be liable for any illegal activity on it. There are numerous stories of child pornographers and black-hat hackers using other peoples wireless networks.

NOTE: Hacking your neighbors or anyone else’s Wifi without their permission is ILLEGAL. Be smart!
Step 1What you Need

-A Computer. (A Laptop works best)

-A Wireless Card capable of packet injection.
-If your laptop wireless card can’t do packet injection you can purchase a wireless adapter such as the Netgear WG111 v2 for around $8-$12 on eBay.

-A Live installation of BackTrack either on a CD or USB stick.
-BackTrack 5 Can be found Here
-Create a Live USB Install Here
Step 2Hack WEP

WEP is the predecessor of WPA and has been hacked for the past 5+ years yet people continue to use it. With the instructions below we can crack WEP in under 15 minutes.

You can crack WEP from the command line but there is an easy GUI interface in backtrack which makes it a much less painful experience for those who are scared of command prompts.

1. Boot into BackTrack

2. Click on the Backtrack applications menu -> Backtrack -> Exploitation tools -> Wireless exploitation -> WLAN Exploitation -> gerix-wifi-cracker-ng (This will open up the GUI interface seen in the picture).

3. Go to the configuration menu and select the wireless interface wlan0
-Click on Enable/Disable Monitor Mode (this will put the wireless card into monitor mode).
-Select the newly created mon0 interface.

4. Now click on the WEP tab at the top of the window.
-Click on “Start sniffing and logging” and leave the terminal open.
-Once the wireless network you want to crack* shows up (it has to be WEP encryption of course) select the WEP Attacks (with clients). *note that the PWR has to be high enough to work so the closer you can get, the better.
-There you click on “Associate with AP using fake auth”, wait a few seconds and click on “ARP request replay”.

5. Once the Data number reaches over 10,000 you are ready to try (if the data is coming fast wait until 20 or 30,000 to be safe) and crack the key, but don’t close any windows yet.
-Go to the cracking tab and click on “Aircrack-ng – Decrypt WEP password” under Wep Cracking.

It will take a few seconds to minutes to crack the password and then you are good to go.
Step 3Hack WPA/WPA2

At least WPA and WPA2 are safe right? Wrong. WPA and WPA2 are both crackable but the time it takes to crack depends on the strength of their password.

-Boot into BackTrack
-Open up Konsole which is a command line utility built into BackTrack. It is the Black Box in the Lower-Left Hand Corner (See Image).
We will now be entering the following commands into the command line noted by Bold as well as explanations as to what they do:

-The following commands stop the wireless interface so you can change your mac address, this is important because your mac address is a unique identifier so faking one is a good idea if you are accessing a network you don’t have permission to. (which by the way I wholly condemn)

1:
airmon-ng stop wlan0
ifconfig wlan0 down
macchanger –mac 00:11:22:33:44:55 wlan0
airmon-ng start wlan0

2:
-Now we will put the airodump-ng tool into monitor mode, this will allow us to see all of the wireless networks around us (See the first Picture).

airodump-ng mon0

Now choose the network you want to hack and take note of the BSSID, and the Channel it is one as well as the ESSID. The PWR has to be fairly high to be able to hack it, this is determined by how close you are to the wireless router. The closer you are, the better.

Once you have chosen the wireless network enter the following into the terminal:
This will write capture packets and put them into the “filename” file, we are trying to capture the handshake between the router and wireless connection which will give us the key we need to crack.

3:
airodump-ng mon0 –channel * –bssid **:**:**:**:**:** -w filename

The following step is optional but is highly recommended as it will speed up the process a great deal.

Once “WPA handshake: **:**:**:**:**:**” appears in the top right-hand corner we can move on. If you are having trouble getting the WPA handshake to occur then do step 4.

4:
aireplay-ng -0 1 -a **:**:**:**:**:** -c **:**:**:**:**:** mon0

What this step (4) does is it deauthorizes a wireless connection and trie to re-establish it so it will generate a new handshake to capture. This step ends once you have captured the handshake.

5:
aircrack-ng –w wordlist.lst -b **:**:**:**:**:** filename.cap

Step 5 is now trying to crack the password in “filename.cap” using a list of words, here called “wordlist.lst” you can download a good 200 million word dictionary here (128MB but unzipped is 800MB).

Your computer has to compute the hash value of every password in that list but a computer can go through those 200 million passwords in 6-12 hours.

6.

If the password isn’t found in the dictionary you can try and brute-force the password with this command: (Note this could take a very long time depending on their password strength).

/pentest/password/jtr/john –stdout –incremental:all | aircrack-ng -b **:**:**:**:**:** -w – filename.cap
Step 4Secure Your Own Wireless Network

Hopefully you gained some insight into how to not get your own wireless connection hacked:

1. Use WPA2 (WPA2-AES) if available and by all means never use WEP.
2. Don’t base your password on a dictionary word. The next section focuses on passwords in general.
3. In your router settings you can usually hide your ESSID (the name of the wireless network) this will add a small layer of security.
4. In your router there is probably a mac-address filtering service where you can specify the mac addresses that are allowed to connect. This will make sure that only your approved devices can connect to your network. (obviously a problem though if you have a guest over and wants to connect to your Wifi).
Step 5Passwords

You have to have good passwords in this day and age. If not your credit card information, your personal information and identity are available to those who want to use it and abuse it. Here are some guidelines to coming up with a secure password:

1. At least 8 characters.
2. At least one number, letter and special character ie: $ # % ^ @ !
3. NOT based on a dictionary word
4. Multiple transitions: ie: aaa111aaa111 not aaaa11111.

How can I remember these passwords?

Come up with a word such as: calculus and substitute numbers and other characters for letters ie: c@1cu1u$
This is still based on a dictionary word though so you should still make it harder such as appending something to the end or beginning.

I also highly recommend using a different password for every website, how can you do this easily? Remember random variables in algebra? Have a random variable in your password that is based on the website or some other information.

IE: XpasswordY where the first X is the last letter of the website name and the last Y is the first letter of the website name:

So the Instructables website password would be SpasswordI or your Facebook password would be KpasswordF and your Hotmail password will be LpasswordH.

It might seem like a lot but it’s worth the time to prevent the potential theft of your money, identity and your life ruined.

External Link:

How to Hack wifi (and how to avoid being hacked) WEP/WPA/WPA2