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cyberciti.biz OpenSSH Root user account restriction – revisited – Lietuviškai

Original

– čia pateikiamas tik vertimas!

Jei norite leisti prisijungti root naudotojui per SSH tik iš vieno IP, o kitiems naudotojams iš betkur kitur. Tokį sprendimą galime realizuoti per PAM autentifikacijos modulius. Naudosime pam_access PAM modulį, kuris naudojamas prieigos valdymui. Šis suteikia galimybę kontroliuoti prisijungimus atsižvelgiant į:

  • Naudotojo prisijungimo vardą (Login names)
  • Kompą ar domeną (Host or domain names)
  • IP ar IP tinklas (Internet addresses or network IP numbers)
  • Terminal line names etc

Kam naudojam pam_access?

Prie serverio gali reikėti prisijungti iš betkurio tinkle esančio kompiuterio. taigi turime pasirūpinti gera prieigos kontrole, naudojant OpenSSH servisą.

Kaip susikonfiguruoti pam_access?

Reikės keisti šiuos failiukus:

  1. /etc/pam.d/sshd
  2. Linux PAM konfiguracinis failas.

  3. /etc/security/access.conf
  4. Taisyklių paėmimui pagal nutylėjimą yra naudojamas šis failas.

Kai kasnors jungiasi, perbėgama per 2 bylos turinį ir jei yra sutapimas įvykdoma taisyklė. Mes galime nurodyti, ar priimti tokį prisijungimą ar atmesti. sintaksė: permission : username: origins kur:
permission : Teisių laukelis “+” (prieiga suteikiama) ar “-” (prieiga atšaukiama)
username : Linux sisteminis naudotojas (username)/login‘as (root ir kiti). Galima nurodyti ir grupės vardą. Arba galima nurodyti specialų trumpinį: ALL (Jei norime, kad tai būtų skirta visiems).
origins : Čia pateikiamas sąrašas terminalo langų, kompo vardų, IP adresų, domenų, kurie prasideda . ar specialų trumpinį ALL ar LOCAL

Visų pirma, kad tolesni pakeitimai veiktų reikia įjungti pam_access palaikymą byloje /etc/pam.d/sshd:


# vi /etc/pam.d/sshd
# Papildome eilute:
account required pam_access.so


Išsaugome ir uždarome.

Tarkime norime leisti naudotojam root ir lpic prisijungti tik iš IP adreso 1.1.1.1.

Atidarome bylą: /etc/security/access.conf su root’o teisėmis:


# vi /etc/security/access.conf
# Papildome eilute:
-: ALL EXCEPT root lpic:1.1.1.1


Išsaugome bylą.

Dabar SSH leis prisijungimus naudotojų root ir lpic tik iš 1.1.1.1 IP adreso. Jei naudotojas root ir lpic bandys jungtis iš kito IP adreso, jiems parašys: ‘Connection closed by xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx’ ir error pranešimu turėtų būti papildytas Jūsų žurnaliukas (log’as):


# tailf /var/log/message
Feb 20 19:02:39 hostname pam_access[2091]: access denied for user `lpic' from `xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx'


Kur, jau kaip ir minėjau xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx1.1.1.1.
Beje, jei įrašėte savo naudotojo vardą ir išsaugojote… VISOS TAISYKLĖS taikomos IŠKART po IŠSAUGOJIMO /etc/security/access.conf bylos! Būkite atsargūs!

Daugiau pavyzdukų:

a) Kartais reiktų sukurti taisykles, kurios leistų prisijungti visiems išskyrus rootbetkur, o root tik iš localhost:


-:root:ALL EXCEPT LOCAL
# ar
-:root:ALL EXCEPT localhost


b) Deny network and local login to all users except for user root and vivek:

-:ALL EXCEPT root vivek:ALL

c) Tik iš 192.168.1.0/24 leisti prisijungti root naudotoju:


+ : root : 192.168.1.0/24


Pastebėjimas: taip galime leisti ir drausti jungtis visoms tarnyboms, kurios naudoja PAM, pvz.: ftpd, telnet ir t.t.

P.S. + : root : yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy
- : root : ALL

mdb Solaris Debuging mini HowTo

Sveiki,

norėdami įdiegti Solaris 10u9 mdb programėlę susidiekime SUNWmdb ir SUNWmdbr paketus. Visų pirma prijunkime CD.ISO, kas gali būti atlikta tik iš globalios zonos (Jei nenaudojate konteinerių, tai galėjote pabraukto teksto ir neskaityti :)):
lofiadm -a /tmp/software.iso /dev/lofi/1
mount -F hsfs -o ro /dev/lofi/1 /mnt

Pereikim į mum reikiamą aplanką
cd /mnt/Solaris_10/Product
Susimeskim visą tai:
pkgadd -d . SUNWmdb
pkgadd -d . SUNWmdbr

Toliau beliko arba prisijungti (ir sustabdyti) procesą: mdb -p ĖPID arba atidaryti core/dump failą: mdb core_dump
Na va o daba mdb komandos:

Control Commands
$< or $<< Replace input with a macro or source a macro.
$>filename or
::log filename
Log session to a file. If no filename, use default.
| Pipe. Allows simple commands to be joined.
! Shell escape. Acts as a pipe to a shell command. (Not available in kmdb.)
// Comment. Following words on the same line are ignored.
$M Show built-in macros (Kernel debugger only).
$Pstring Set prompt to string.
$Q
::quit
Quit. (From kmdb, use -u option to avoid exiting to ok> prompt.)
$W Re-open target in writable mode.
$p Change target context.
$w Control output page width.
:A Attach to a process or core file.
:R Release attachment.
:k Kill and release targets.
$v Print non-zero variables.
>
::typeset
Assign a variable.
::dcmds Print available commands.
::nm Print symbol table. (-P specifies a private symbol table. Manipulated with ::nmaddand ::nmdelete
::help dcmd Provide usage notes on a dcmd.
::typeset Manipulate variable.
::walk Walk data structure.
::walkers List available walkers.

 

 

Input & Output Commands
$< 
$<<
Replace input with a macro or source a macro.
$>filename Log session to a file. If no filename, use default.
address/format-spec
/format-spec
Read the value in a memory addressformatted as format-spec. If no address is provided, use dot.
address/W value Write the value in the four bytes starting with address. If no address is provided, usedotvw or Z may also be used instead of Wto write 1, 2 or 8 bytes, respectively.
address=format-spec
=format-spec
Format immediate value of address or dot.
? Read/write primary object file.
@format-spec Read/write physical address as format-spec.
\format-spec Read/write physical address as format-spec.

The difference between / and = is subtle. For example, to find the address holding the value of the maxphys symbol in decimal, we would run:
maxphys=D
To find the value inside the above address, we would use / like:
maxphys/D

 

 

Format Specification
Note that the ::formats dcmd prints out a full list of supported formats.
D Display in signed decimal.
i Display as a disassembled instruction.
U Display in unsigned decimal.
X Display in signed hexidecimal.
0txyz Specifies xyz as a decimal value.

 

 

System Examination
cpu$<cpus Display cpu0.
cpun$<cpu Display cpu #n.
$<msgbuf Display message buffer, including all console messages up to panic.
<sp$<stacktrace Use the stack pointer address (sp) to display a detailed stack trace.
$r
::regs
Display general registers, including program counter and stack pointer.
::callout Print callout table.
::cpuinfo -v Information about activities of CPUs, including runqueue inhabitants.
::cpuregs
::cpuregs -c cpuid
Print CPU registers. kmdb only. Can specify a cpu.
::cpustack
::cpustack -ccpuid
Print CPU stack. kmdb only. Can specify a cpu.
::dnlc Print DNLC contents.
::ipcs Print SVR4 IPC information.
::kmalog Display kernel memory log and stack traces.
::kmastat Print current kernel memory allocations
::memstat Print current memory usage.
::nm Print symbol table. (-P specifies a private symbol table. Manipulated with ::nmaddand ::nmdelete
::ps List processes with associated threads and lwps
::ptree Print process tree.

 

 

Target Examination
$? Print status and registers.
$C Show call trace and arguments, saved frame pointer and saved program counter for each stack frame.
$X$Y$x$y and::fpregs Display floating point registers.
$c Display stack backtrace.
$e Print list of global symbols.
$f Print list of source files.
$l Print representative thread’s lwp ID.
$m Print address space mappings.
$r
::regs
Display general registers, including program counter and stack pointer.
as::as2proc Convert as pointer to a proc_t pointer.
::devbindings devinfo nodes bound to device-name ormajor-num.
::devinfo Detailed devinfo of node.
::devinfo2driver Driver name for this node.
::devnames Print devnames array.
::devt Display dev_t‘s major & minor numbers.
::did2thread Kernel thread for this ID.
::dumpaddress Dump memory from address.
::findfalse Find potentially falsely shared structures.
::findleaks Search for potential kernel memory leaks.
::findlocks Find locks held by specified thread.
threadp::findstack Find kernel thread stack for associated thread.
::inode Display summary of inode_t.
::kmsqid Display message queue structure (kmsqid).
::ksemid Display a semaphore structure (ksemid).
::kshmid Display a shared memory structure (kshmid).
::pgrep pattern Find proc_t pointers matching the pattern.
0tPID::pid2proc Convert decimal PID to a proc_t pointer.
procp::ps Process information matching the associated proc_t.
::status Print summary of target status.
sobj::walk blocked Walk threads blocked on a particular synchronization object (sobj).
procp::walk thread Walk threads of associated process.
sobj::wchaninfo -v Blocked on condition variables for a particular synchronization object (sobj).
address::whatis Attempts to identify address contents.
vnode::whereopen Processes with vnode open.

 

 

Tracing, Watchpoints and Breakpoints
(Breakpoints for kernel debugger only.)
$b Show all breakpoints.
$i Print list of ignored signals.
:a Set a watchpoint.
:b Set a breakpoint.
:c or ::cont Continue target execution.
:d Delete a breakpoint.
:e Step over next instruction.
:i Step over next instruction.
:k Kill and release targets.
:p Set execute access watchpoints.
:r Run new target process.
:s Step target to next instruction.
:t Stop on delivery of specified signals.
:u Step out of current function.
:w Set write access watchpoint.
:z Delete all breakpoints.

 

 

General Debugging
$G Toggle C++ demangling.
$V Toggle disassembly mode.
$g Toggle C++ demangling.
address::dis Disassemble text starting at address.

 

 

Comparison Operators
== Logical equality.
!= Logical inequality.
& Bitwise AND.
| Bitwise OR.
^ Bitwise XOR.

Windows 7 boot’inis USB howto linux’e

Sveiki,

Tikriausiai Jūs jau senokai įrašinėjate Windows 7 naudodami USB raktą… o aš tai dariau pirmą kartą…

Tam man reikėjo ms-sys programėlės bei Windows 7 atvaizdo.

Taip, pirma mums reikia parsipūsti ms-sys.
Išsipakuokime ir įsidiekime:


# kai buvo rašytas šis vedlys 2.2.1 buvo naujausia versija
wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/ms-sys/ms-sys%20stable/2.2.1/ms-sys-2.2.1.tar.gz?r=http%3A%2F%2Fms-sys.sourceforge.net%2F\&ts=1311108133\&use_mirror=switch -O ms-sys-2.2.1.tar.gz
tar -axf ms-sys-2.2.1.tar.gz
cd ms-sys-2.2.1
make
# jei po šios komandos parašo:
make: msgfmt: Command not found
# mums reikia parsisiųsti gettext paketa komanda: aptitude install gettext tada per nauja make
make install


Dabar mes turėtume turėti visas būtinas programas mūsų linuxe.
visų pirma mums reikia susiformatuoti mūsų USB raktą.


cfdisk /dev/sdb


Čia pasirenkame taip, kad vienintelė particija būtų NTFS tipo ir būtų Active bei būtų pažymėta, kaip Bootable, to reikia, jei norime, kad kompiuteris pasikrautų iš USB rakto.
Toliau formatuojame particiją bei ją prijungiame:


mkfs.ntfs -f /dev/sdb1
mkdir /mnt/usb
mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/usb


Tuomet prijungiame Windows 7 ISO


mkdir /mnt/win7iso
mount -o loop /path/to/win7.iso /mnt/win7iso


Kopijuojame duomenis:


cp -r /mnt/win7iso/* /mnt/usb/


Įrašome įkrovos programėlę į USB:


ms-sys -7 /dev/sdb


atjungiame flęšą bei įrašome darkartelį:


umount /mnt/usb
sync
ms-sys -7 /dev/sdb
sync


Dabar galime atjungti USB laikmeną.
tik nepamirškite, padaryt, kad Jūsų kompiuteris krautųsi iš USB.

simboliu kodavimas 2

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Ð &#208;
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ý &#253;
þ &#254;
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Ă &#258;
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ɢ &#610;
ɣ &#611;
ɤ &#612;
ɥ &#613;
ɦ &#614;
ɧ &#615;
ɨ &#616;
ɩ &#617;
ɪ &#618;
ɫ &#619;
ɬ &#620;
ɭ &#621;
ɮ &#622;
ɯ &#623;
ɰ &#624;
ɱ &#625;
ɲ &#626;
ɳ &#627;
ɴ &#628;
ɵ &#629;
ɶ &#630;
ɷ &#631;
ɸ &#632;
ɹ &#633;
ɺ &#634;
ɻ &#635;
ɼ &#636;
ɽ &#637;
ɾ &#638;
ɿ &#639;
ʀ &#640;
ʁ &#641;
ʂ &#642;
ʃ &#643;
ʄ &#644;
ʅ &#645;
ʆ &#646;
ʇ &#647;
ʈ &#648;
ʉ &#649;
ʊ &#650;
ʋ &#651;
ʌ &#652;
ʍ &#653;
ʎ &#654;
ʏ &#655;
ʐ &#656;
ʑ &#657;
ʒ &#658;
ʓ &#659;
ʔ &#660;
ʕ &#661;
ʖ &#662;
ʗ &#663;
ʘ &#664;
ʙ &#665;
ʚ &#666;
ʛ &#667;
ʜ &#668;
ʝ &#669;
ʞ &#670;
ʟ &#671;
ʠ &#672;
ʡ &#673;
ʢ &#674;
ʣ &#675;
ʤ &#676;
ʥ &#677;
ʦ &#678;
ʧ &#679;
ʨ &#680;
ʩ &#681;
ʪ &#682;
ʫ &#683;
ʬ &#684;
ʭ &#685;
ʮ &#686;
ʯ &#687;
ʰ &#688;
ʱ &#689;
ʲ &#690;
ʳ &#691;
ʴ &#692;
ʵ &#693;
ʶ &#694;
ʷ &#695;
ʸ &#696;
ʹ &#697;
ʺ &#698;
ʻ &#699;
ʼ &#700;
ʽ &#701;
ʾ &#702;
ʿ &#703;
ˀ &#704;
ˁ &#705;
˂ &#706;
˃ &#707;
˄ &#708;
˅ &#709;
ˆ &#710;
ˇ &#711;
ˈ &#712;
ˉ &#713;
ˊ &#714;
ˋ &#715;
ˌ &#716;
ˍ &#717;
ˎ &#718;
ˏ &#719;
ː &#720;
ˑ &#721;
˒ &#722;
˓ &#723;
˔ &#724;
˕ &#725;
˖ &#726;
˗ &#727;
˘ &#728;
˙ &#729;
˚ &#730;
˛ &#731;
˜ &#732;
˝ &#733;
˞ &#734;
˟ &#735;
ˠ &#736;
ˡ &#737;
ˢ &#738;
ˣ &#739;
ˤ &#740;
˥ &#741;
˦ &#742;
˧ &#743;
˨ &#744;
˩ &#745;
˪ &#746;
˫ &#747;
ˬ &#748;
˭ &#749;
ˮ &#750;
˯ &#751;
˰ &#752;
˱ &#753;
˲ &#754;
˳ &#755;
˴ &#756;
˵ &#757;
˶ &#758;
˷ &#759;
˸ &#760;
˹ &#761;
˺ &#762;
˻ &#763;
˼ &#764;
˽ &#765;
˾ &#766;
Ͱ &#880;
ͱ &#881;
Ͳ &#882;
ͳ &#883;
ʹ &#884;
͵ &#885;
Ͷ &#886;
ͷ &#887;
͸ &#888;
͹ &#889;
ͺ &#890;
ͻ &#891;
ͼ &#892;
ͽ &#893;
; &#894;
Ϳ &#895;
΀ &#896;
΁ &#897;
΂ &#898;
΃ &#899;
΄ &#900;
΅ &#901;
Ά &#902;
· &#903;
Έ &#904;
Ή &#905;
Ί &#906;
΋ &#907;
Ό &#908;
΍ &#909;
Ύ &#910;
Ώ &#911;
ΐ &#912;
Α &#913;
Β &#914;
Γ &#915;
Δ &#916;
Ε &#917;
Ζ &#918;
Η &#919;
Θ &#920;
Ι &#921;
Κ &#922;
Λ &#923;
Μ &#924;
Ν &#925;
Ξ &#926;
Ο &#927;
Π &#928;
Ρ &#929;
΢ &#930;
Σ &#931;
Τ &#932;
Υ &#933;
Φ &#934;
Χ &#935;
Ψ &#936;
Ω &#937;
Ϊ &#938;
Ϋ &#939;
ά &#940;
έ &#941;
ή &#942;
ί &#943;
ΰ &#944;
α &#945;
β &#946;
γ &#947;
δ &#948;
ε &#949;
ζ &#950;
η &#951;
θ &#952;
ι &#953;
κ &#954;
λ &#955;
μ &#956;
ν &#957;
ξ &#958;
ο &#959;
π &#960;
ρ &#961;
ς &#962;
σ &#963;
τ &#964;
υ &#965;
φ &#966;
χ &#967;
ψ &#968;
ω &#969;
ϊ &#970;
ϋ &#971;
ό &#972;
ύ &#973;
ώ &#974;
Ϗ &#975;
ϐ &#976;
ϑ &#977;
ϒ &#978;
ϓ &#979;
ϔ &#980;
ϕ &#981;
ϖ &#982;
ϗ &#983;
Ϙ &#984;
ϙ &#985;
Ϛ &#986;
ϛ &#987;
Ϝ &#988;
ϝ &#989;
Ϟ &#990;
ϟ &#991;
Ϡ &#992;
ϡ &#993;
Ϣ &#994;
ϣ &#995;
Ϥ &#996;
ϥ &#997;
Ϧ &#998;
ϧ &#999;

URL kodavimas

á &aacute;
Á &Aacute;
â &acirc;
 &Acirc;
´ &acute;
æ &aelig;
Æ &AElig;
à &agrave;
À &Agrave;
&alefsym;
α &alpha;
Α &Alpha;
& &amp;
&and;
&ang;
å &aring;
Å &Aring;
&asymp;
ã &atilde;
à &Atilde;
ä &auml;
Ä &Auml;
&bdquo;
β &beta;
Β &Beta;
¦ &brvbar;
&bull;
&cap;
ç &ccedil;
Ç &Ccedil;
¸ &cedil;
¢ &cent;
χ &chi;
Χ &Chi;
ˆ &circ;
&clubs;
&cong;
© &copy;
&crarr;
&cup;
¤ &curren;
&dagger;
&Dagger;
&darr;
&dArr;
° &deg;
δ &delta;
Δ &Delta;
&diams;
÷ &divide;
é &eacute;
É &Eacute;
ê &ecirc;
Ê &Ecirc;
è &egrave;
È &Egrave;
&empty;
&emsp;
&ensp;
ε &epsilon;
Ε &Epsilon;
&equiv;
η &eta;
Η &Eta;
ð &eth;
Ð &ETH;
ë &euml;
Ë &Euml;
&euro;
&exist;
ƒ &fnof;
&forall;
½ &frac12;
¼ &frac14;
¾ &frac34;
&frasl;
γ &gamma;
Γ &Gamma;
&ge;
> &gt;
&harr;
&hArr;
&hearts;
&hellip;
í &iacute;
Í &Iacute;
î &icirc;
Î &Icirc;
¡ &iexcl;
ì &igrave;
Ì &Igrave;
&image;
&infin;
&int;
ι &iota;
Ι &Iota;
¿ &iquest;
&isin;
ï &iuml;
Ï &Iuml;
κ &kappa;
Κ &Kappa;
λ &lambda;
Λ &Lambda;
&lang;
« &laquo;
&larr;
&lArr;
&lceil;
&ldquo;
&le;
&lfloor;
&lowast;
&loz;
&lrm;
&lsaquo;
&lsquo;
< &lt;
¯ &macr;
&mdash;
µ &micro;
· &middot;
&minus;
μ &mu;
Μ &Mu;
&nabla;
  &nbsp;
&; &;
&; &;
&ndash;
&ne;
&ni;
¬ &not;
&notin;
&nsub;
ñ &ntilde;
Ñ &Ntilde;
ν &nu;
Ν &Nu;
ó &oacute;
Ó &Oacute;
ô &ocirc;
Ô &Ocirc;
œ &oelig;
Π&OElig;
ò &ograve;
Ò &Ograve;
&oline;
ω &omega;
Ω &Omega;
ο &omicron;
Ο &Omicron;
&oplus;
&or;
ª &ordf;
º &ordm;
ø &oslash;
Ø &Oslash;
õ &otilde;
Õ &Otilde;
&otimes;
ö &ouml;
Ö &Ouml;
&para;
&part;
&permil;
&perp;
φ &phi;
Φ &Phi;
π &pi;
Π &Pi;
ϖ &piv;
± &plusmn;
£ &pound;
&prime;
&Prime;
&prod;
&prop;
ψ &psi;
Ψ &Psi;
" &quot;
&radic;
&rang;
» &raquo;
&rarr;
&rArr;
&rceil;
&rdquo;
&real;
® &reg;
&rfloor;
ρ &rho;
Ρ &Rho;
&rlm;
&rsaquo;
&rsquo;
&sbquo;
š &scaron;
Š &Scaron;
&sdot;
§ &sect;
­ &shy;
σ &sigma;
Σ &Sigma;
ς &sigmaf;
&sim;
&spades;
&sub;
&sube;
&sum;
&sup;
¹ &sup1;
² &sup2;
³ &sup3;
&supe;
ß &szlig;
τ &tau;
Τ &Tau;
&there4;
θ &theta;
Θ &Theta;
ϑ &thetasym;
&thinsp;
þ &thorn;
Þ &THORN;
˜ &tilde;
× &times;
&trade;
ú &uacute;
Ú &Uacute;
&uarr;
&uArr;
û &ucirc;
Û &Ucirc;
ù &ugrave;
Ù &Ugrave;
¨ &uml;
ϒ &upsih;
υ &upsilon;
Υ &Upsilon;
ü &uuml;
Ü &Uuml;
&weierp;
ξ &xi;
Ξ &Xi;
ý &yacute;
Ý &Yacute;
¥ &yen;
ÿ &yuml;
Ÿ &Yuml;
ζ &zeta;
Ζ &Zeta;